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For several decades, the reactive gliosis that occurs after an injury to the CNS has been considered one of the major impediments to axonal regeneration. Nevertheless, recent studies have suggested that in certain conditions, reactive astrocytes may provide a permissive substratum to support axonal regrowth. The important criteria, allowing for the(More)
Substantial evidences suggest that the increased cerebral deposition, and neurotoxic action of the beta-amyloid peptide, the major constituent of senile plaques, may represent the underlying cause of the cognitive deficits observed in Alzheimer's disease. Herein, we attempted to verify this hypothesis by inducing a potential Alzheimer's-type amnesia after(More)
The International Campaign for Cures of Spinal Cord Injury Paralysis (ICCP) supported an international panel tasked with reviewing the methodology for clinical trials in spinal cord injury (SCI), and making recommendations on the conduct of future trials. This is the first of four papers. Here, we examine the spontaneous rate of recovery after SCI and(More)
An international panel reviewed the methodology for clinical trials of spinal cord injury (SCI), and provided recommendations for the valid conduct of future trials. This is the second of four papers. It examines clinical trial end points that have been used previously, reviews alternative outcome tools and identifies unmet needs for demonstrating the(More)
The NT2 cell line, which was derived from a human teratocarcinoma, exhibits properties that are characteristic of a committed neuronal precursor at an early stage of development. NT2 cells can be induced by retinoic acid to differentiate in vitro into postmitotic central nervous system (CNS) neurons (NT2-N cells). The commitment of NT2-N cells to a stable(More)
The beta-amyloid peptide-(25-35) fragment, but not beta-amyloid peptide-(1-28), shares with beta-amyloid protein-(1-42) the ability to self-aggregate and to induce neurotoxicity in vitro. This study examined the induction of amnesia in rats given intracerebroventricularly soluble or aggregated beta-amyloid peptide-(25-35) (5-45 nmol), or beta-amyloid(More)
The worldwide proliferation of mobile phones raises the question of the effects of 900-MHz electromagnetic fields (EMF) on the brain. Using a head-only exposure device in the rat, we showed that a 15-min exposure to 900-MHz pulsed microwaves at a high brain-averaged power of 6 W/kg induced a strong glial reaction in the brain. This effect, which suggests(More)
The development of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) innervation in the spinal cord was studied from embryonic day 14 (E14) to adulthood. Sprague-Dawley rats were fixed by perfusion with 5% glutaraldehyde in cacodylate-sodium metabisulfite buffer, and vibratome sections were processed for immunocytochemistry with a 5-HT antiserum. For electron microscopy, the(More)
The myelin of the central nervous system (CNS) of the mutant mouse Shiverer is characterized by the absence of the major dense line (MDL). The intraperiod line, as seen in conventional electron micrographs and in freeze-fractured replicas, appears normal. Peripheral myelin, as seen in ventral and dorsal roots of spinal cord, is unaffected by the mutation.(More)