Alain Pineau

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Thiopurine drugs are commonly used in pediatric patients for the treatment of acute leukemia, organ transplantation and inflammatory diseases. They are catabolized by the cytosolic thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT), which is subject to a genetic polymorphism. In children, enzyme activities are immature at birth and developmental patterns vary widely from(More)
Toxic and essential trace metals were measured in muscle, bone, liver and kidney of bovine grazing on the municipal wastewater spreading field of Marrakech City (Morocco). Bovines were found to be seriously contaminated by toxic metals, for metal bioaccumulation. The high cadmium content seemed to contribute to a reduction in zinc and copper levels. The(More)
This review concerns various minerals (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus), trace elements (zinc, manganese, selenium, copper, iron, cobalt, iodine, chromium, fluorine, lead, cadmium) and other biological variables (nitric oxide, L-carnitine, glutamine, serum transferrin receptor, biopyrrins) in relation to hemorheologic effects, stress,(More)
This study compares the efficiency of blood lead level analysis by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) and the portable LeadCare Blood Lead Testing System (LCS). Recoveries of two added lead concentrations of 22 and 42 micrograms/dL ranged from 102.4 to 105.5% for LCS and from 96.3 to 97.2% for GFAAS. Measurement of a certified sample(More)
Lead and cadmium concentration was determined in the hair of 327 school children living in a wastewater spreading field of Marrakesh (Morocco). The influence of age, sex, food habits and family occupation on the children's hair Pb and Cd concentration was also evaluated. Girls had more metal in their hair than boys (16.5 +/- 5.4 micrograms/g and 12.5 +/-(More)
Since aluminium (Al) pervades our environment, the scientific community has for many years raised concerns regarding its safety in humans. Al is present in numerous cosmetics such as antiperspirants, lipsticks and sunscreens. Al chlorohydrate is the active antiperspirant agent in underarm cosmetics and may constitute for Al a key exposure route to the human(More)
Difficulties in cognitive control including inhibitory control (IC) are related to the pathophysiology of several psychiatric conditions. In healthy subjects, IC efficiency in childhood is a strong predictor of academic and professional successes later in life. The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is one of the core structures responsible for IC.(More)
A new liquid-liquid extraction is described for thiopurine methyl transferase (TPMT, EC 2.1.1.67) activity determination: the use of a pH 9.5 NH4Cl buffer solution, before adding the solvent mixture, allows more rapid extraction, avoiding a centrifugation step, and reduces the global cost of analysis. After the extraction step, 6-methylmercaptopurine,(More)
Chromium (Cr) is of known biological importance, necessary for the maintenance of normal glucose metabolism. There is a lower level of blood Cr concentrations in cases of diabetes. Diabetes carries a risk of cataract development, so the potential effects of Cr on the eye may need to be studied in more depth. The presence of this trace element in both normal(More)
We have been monitoring a 12-year-old boy (his present age) suffering from selective magnesium (Mg) malabsorption. After ascertaining his Mg status, we attempted to maintain Mg balance through the use of oral supplements. Plasma and erythrocyte Mg concentrations were monitored at bimonthly intervals. However these measurements did not accurately reflect Mg(More)