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Recently, a second member of the protease-activated receptor (PAR) family, named PAR-2, has been identified. Similar to the thrombin receptor, PAR-2 appears to be activated by proteolytic-mediated exposure of a "tethered ligand" sequence and can also be activated by the corresponding synthetic peptides. Similarities in the amino acid sequence of the(More)
Deficiency in the nuclear-encoded mitochondrial protein frataxin causes Friedreich ataxia (FRDA), a progressive neurodegenerative disorder associating spinocerebellar ataxia and cardiomyopathy. Although the exact function of frataxin is still a matter of debate, it is widely accepted that frataxin is a mitochondrial iron chaperone involved in iron-sulfur(More)
BACKGROUND Frataxin, the mitochondrial protein deficient in Friedreich ataxia, a rare autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder, is thought to be involved in multiple iron-dependent mitochondrial pathways. In particular, frataxin plays an important role in the formation of iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters biogenesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We(More)
Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster-containing proteins are essential components of cells. In eukaryotes, Fe-S clusters are synthesized by the mitochondrial iron-sulfur cluster (ISC) machinery and the cytosolic iron-sulfur assembly (CIA) system. In the mammalian ISC machinery, preassembly of the Fe-S cluster on the scaffold protein (ISCU) involves a cysteine(More)
In 1996, a link was identified between Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA), the most common inherited ataxia in men, and alterations in the gene encoding frataxin (FXN). Initial studies revealed that the disease is caused by a unique, most frequently biallelic, expansion of the GAA sequence in intron 1 of FXN. Since the identification of this link, there has been(More)
The cellular pro-oxidative stress induced by high zinc concentrations or cadmium is most likely mediated by disruption of redox (mainly thiol) homeostasis or by mishandling of redox-active transition metals. The impact of zinc and cadmium on the main regulators of iron homeostasis in metazoans, the iron regulatory proteins (IRP) 1 and 2, has been probed(More)
Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is the most common recessive ataxia in the Caucasian population and is characterized by a mixed spinocerebellar and sensory ataxia frequently associating cardiomyopathy. The disease results from decreased expression of the FXN gene coding for the mitochondrial protein frataxin. Early histological and biochemical study of the(More)
Friedreich ataxia, the most common recessive ataxia, is caused by the deficiency of the mitochondrial protein frataxin (Fxn), an iron chaperone involved in the assembly of Fe-S clusters (ISC). In yeast, mitochondria play a central role for all Fe-S proteins, independently of their subcellular localization. In mammalian cells, this central role of(More)
Mitochondrial iron accumulation is a hallmark of diseases associated with impaired iron-sulfur cluster (Fe-S) biogenesis, such as Friedreich ataxia linked to frataxin (FXN) deficiency. The pathophysiological relevance of the mitochondrial iron loading and the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Using a mouse model of hepatic FXN deficiency in combination(More)
In iron-starved cells, IRP1 (iron regulatory protein 1) binds to mRNA iron-responsive elements and controls their translation or stability. In response to increased iron levels, RNA-binding is inhibited on assembly of a cubane [4Fe-4S] cluster, which renders IRP1 to a cytosolic aconitase. Phosphorylation at conserved serine residues may also regulate the(More)