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In eukaryotes, co-translational insertion of selenocysteine into selenoproteins necessitates the participation of the selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS), an element lying in the 3'-untranslated region of selenoprotein mRNAs. We report a detailed experimental study of the secondary structures of the SECIS elements of three selenoprotein mRNAs, the rat(More)
Selenium is important for embryogenesis in vertebrates but little is known about the expression patterns and biological functions of most selenoprotein genes. Taking advantage of the zebrafish model, systematic analysis of selenoprotein gene expression was performed by in situ hybridization on whole-mount embryos at different developmental stages.(More)
SUMMARY Selenoproteins contain the 21st amino acid selenocysteine which is encoded by an inframe UGA codon, usually read as a stop. In eukaryotes, its co-translational recoding requires the presence of an RNA stem-loop structure, the SECIS element in the 3 untranslated region of (UTR) selenoprotein mRNAs. Despite little sequence conservation, SECIS elements(More)
The solution structure of human U1 snRNA was investigated by using base-specific chemical probes (dimethylsulfate, carbodiimide, diethylpyrocarbonate) and RNase V1. Chemical reagents were employed under various conditions of salt and temperature and allowed information at the Watson-Crick base-pairing positions to be obtained for 66% of the U1 snRNA bases.(More)
Selenium is an essential trace element. In cattle, selenium deficiency causes dysfunction of various organs, including skeletal and cardiac muscles. In humans as well, lack of selenium is associated with many disorders, but despite accumulation of clinical reports, muscle diseases are not generally considered on the list. The goal of this review is to(More)
Selenoproteins are a diverse group of proteins that contain selenocysteine (Sec), the 21st amino acid. In the genetic code, UGA serves as a termination signal and a Sec codon. This dual role has precluded the automatic annotation of selenoproteins. Recent advances in the computational identification of selenoprotein genes have provided a first glimpse of(More)
Selenocysteine is incorporated into selenoproteins by an in-frame UGA codon whose readthrough requires the selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS), a conserved hairpin in the 3'-untranslated region of eukaryotic selenoprotein mRNAs. To identify new selenoproteins, we developed a strategy that obviates the need for prior amino acid sequence information. A(More)
Decoding of UGA selenocysteine codons in eubacteria is mediated by the specialized elongation factor SelB, which conveys the charged tRNA(Sec) to the A site of the ribosome, through binding to the SECIS mRNA hairpin. In an attempt to isolate the eukaryotic homolog of SelB, a database search in this work identified a mouse expressed sequence tag containing(More)
The amino acid selenocysteine (Sec) is the major biological form of the trace element selenium. Sec is co-translationally incorporated in selenoproteins. There are 25 selenoprotein genes in humans, and Sec was found in the active site of those that have been attributed a function. This review will discuss how selenocysteine is synthesized and incorporated(More)