Alain Guignandon

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BACKGROUND Microgravity has been thought to induce osteoporosis because of reduced weight-bearing. However, up to now, few data have been available about its precise nature and timecourse. METHODS We measured bone mineral density (BMD) at the distal radius and tibia in 15 cosmonauts of the Russian MIR space station who sojourned in space either 1 (n=two),(More)
The mechanisms involved in the mechanical loading-induced increase in bone formation remain unclear. In this study, we showed that cyclic strain (CS) (10 min, 1% stretch at 0.25 Hz) stimulated the proliferation of overnight serum-starved ROS 17/2.8 osteoblast-like cells plated on type I collagen-coated silicone membranes. This increase was blocked by MEK(More)
Hybrid materials combining polyethylene terephthalate and different types of cells (endothelial and osteoblastic cells) have been developed thanks to the covalent grafting of different densities of RGD containing peptides onto the polymer surface. Biomimetic modifications were performed by means of a three-step reaction procedure: creation of COOH(More)
Because a lack of mechanical information favors the development of adipocytes at the expense of osteoblasts, we hypothesized that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma)-dependent balance between osteoblasts and adipocytes is affected by mechanical stimuli. We tested the robustness of this hypothesis in in vivo rodent osteogenic(More)
Intermittent parathyroid hormone (PTH) is anabolic for bone. Our aims were to determine (1) whether PTH stimulates bone angiogenesis and (2) whether vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF A) mediates PTH-induced bone accrual. Male Wistar rats were given PTH(1-84) daily, and trabecular bone mass increased 150% and 92% after 30 and 15 days, respectively.(More)
The relationship between cell morphology and cell metabolism and the role of mechanical load in bone remodeling is well known. Mechanical stimulation induces changes in the shape of osteoblasts, probably mediated by reorganization of focal contacts. We studied the influence of gravity (Gz) variations occurring during parabolic flight on osteoblast focal(More)
We compared quantitatively vinculin-related adhesion parameters in osteoblastic cells submitted to opposite mechanical stresses, i.e., low deformation and frequency strain regimens (stretch condition) and microgravity exposure (relaxed condition). Cyclic deformation induced a biphasic response comprising new focal contacts formation followed by their(More)
Bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteopontin (OPN) belong to the small integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoprotein (SIBLING) family, whose members interact with bone cells and bone mineral. Previously, we showed that BSP knockout (BSP(-/-) ) mice have a higher bone mass than wild type (BSP(+/+) ) littermates, with very low bone-formation activity and reduced(More)
The effects of low-magnitude, high-frequency (LMHF) mechanical stimulation on osteoblastic cells are poorly understood. We have developed a system that generates very small (15–40 με), high-frequency (400 Hz, sine) deformations on osteoblast cultures (MC3T3-E1). We investigated the effects of these LMHF stimulations mainly on extracellular matrix (ECM)(More)
There is a large body of evidence that microgravity- or immobilization-induced bone loss is mainly related to osteoblastic cell impairment. Osteoblasts are sensitive to increased mechanical stress and could therefore be responsible for unloading-induced bone changes. However, the nature of osteoblast involvement remains unclear. The effects of the space(More)