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— This paper studies the semantics of hierarchical finite state machines (FMS's) that are composed using various concurrency models, particularly dataflow, discrete-events, and synchronous/reactive modeling. It is argued that all three combinations are useful, and that the concurrency model can be selected independently of the decision to use hierarchical(More)
Dataflow programming models are suitable to express multi-core streaming applications. The design of high-quality embedded systems in that context requires static analysis to ensure the liveness and bounded memory of the application. However, many streaming applications have a dynamic behavior. The previously proposed dataflow models for dynamic(More)
Our goal is to automatically obtain a distributed and fault-tolerant embedded system: distributed because the system must run on a distributed architecture; fault-tolerant because the system is critical. Our starting point is a source algorithm, a target distributed architecture, some distribution constraints, some indications on the execution times of the(More)
Many studies have reported changes in potassium channel expression in many cancers and the involvement of these channels in various stages of cancer progression. By contrast, data concerning SKCa channels (small conductance calcium-activated potassium channels) have only recently become available. This review aims i) to present the structure and physiology(More)
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most lethal and common malignant human brain tumor. The intrinsic resistance of highly invasive GBM cells to radiation- and chemotherapy-induced apoptosis accounts for the generally dismal treatment outcomes. This study investigated ophiobolin A (OP-A), a fungal metabolite from Bipolaris species, for its promising(More)
—This paper addresses the problem of automatically distributing reactive systems. We first show that the use of synchronous languages allows a natural parallel description of such systems, regardless of any distribution problems. Then, a desired distribution can be easily specified, and achieved with the algorithm presented here. This distribution technique(More)
The paper introduces a higher-order synchronous data-flow language in which communication channels may themselves transport programs. This provides a mean to dynamically reconfigure data-flow processes. The language comes as a natural and strict extension of both <sc>lustre</sc> and <sc>lucy</sc>. This extension is conservative, in the sense that a(More)
We address the problem of off-line fault tolerant scheduling of an algorithm onto a multiprocessor architecture with distributed memory and provide a generic algorithm which solves this problem. We take into account two kinds of failures: fail-silent and omission. The basic technique we use is the replication of operations and data communications. We then(More)
For autonomous critical real-time embedded (e.g., satellite), guaranteeing a very high level of reliability is as important as keeping the power consumption as low as possible. We propose an off-line scheduling heuristic which, from a given software application graph and a given multiprocessor architecture (homogeneous and fully connected), produces a(More)
Various lipids were extracted from tachyzoites and from purfied pellicles ofToxoplasma gondii. Extracts from both sources were found to have a low cholesterol/phospholipid ratio. The major phospholipid in these fractions was phosphatidylcholine associated with a low amount of sphingomyelin. Oleic acid represented one-third of whole-cell fatty acids and 44%(More)