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We constructed and analyzed a synthetic poly(A) (SPA) site that was based on the highly efficient poly(A) signal of the rabbit beta-globin gene. By use of the SPA, we demonstrate that the minimum sequences required for efficient polyadenylation are the AATAAA sequence and a GT/T-rich sequence with the correct spacing of 22-23 nucleotides between them. When(More)
BACKGROUND Various approaches that were recently developed demonstrate the ability to simultaneously detect all human (or other species) chromosomes by using combinatorial labeling and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). With the growing interest in this field, it is important to develop tools for optimizing and estimating the accuracy of different(More)
DNA sequencing studies indicate that only one of two closely linked human embryonic alpha-like globin genes, zeta (zeta), encodes a functional polypeptide. The other is a pseudogene (psi zeta) that differs by only 3 bp in the protein coding sequence, one of which converts the codon for amino acid 6 into a chain termination codon. Both zeta-globin genes(More)
The polypyrimidine tract of mammalian introns is recognized by a 62-kD protein (pPTB). Mutations in the polypyrimidine tract that reduce the binding of pPTB also reduce the efficiency of formation of the pre-spliceosome complex containing U2 snRNP. The PTB protein was purified to homogeneity by affinity chromatography on a matrix containing poly(U), and(More)
Initiation of translation of the RNA genomes of picornaviruses such as poliovirus and encephalomyocarditis virus is cap-independent and results from interaction of ribosomes with a segment of the 5' noncoding region of these mRNAs termed the internal ribosomal entry site. Genetic and biochemical studies have previously shown that a 57-kDa cytoplasmic(More)
Translation of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) mRNA occurs in a cap-independent manner, requiring instead a cis-acting element termed the internal ribosomal entry site (IRES). Binding of a 57-kDa ribosome-associated protein (p57) to the EMCV IRES has been found to correlate with cap-independent translation. p57 has recently been reported to be very(More)
We previously demonstrated that a critical 35 bp region 3' of the AAUAAA is required for rabbit beta-globin mRNA 3' end formation. Recently, we synthesized and tested sequence elements derived from this region. Here, we report that a GU-rich and a U-rich sequence element are both required for efficient rabbit beta-globin mRNA 3' end formation. The(More)
The sequence AAUAAA, found 11-30 base pairs (bp) upstream of the poly(A) site of most non-histone eukaryotic messenger RNAs (mRNAs) forms an essential part of the recognition site for 3'-end processing of the primary transcript. However, the sequence AATAAA is found in transcribed regions of genes and is differentially utilized in genes containing multiple(More)
Common sunflower (i.e., Helianthus annuus) is occasionally crossed with other Helianthus species to gain favourable agronomic traits. An interspecific cross between H. annuus and Helianthus mollis was used to examine events that occurred during the five first generations. First generation hybrid plants were verified using GISH, and F1 hybrid (#17) was(More)
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