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This study aims to assess the genotoxic potential of nivalenol (NIV) and fusarenon X (FusX), produced by various Fusarium on cereals. Toxins were applied in time and dose-dependent experiments to the human enterocyte-like Caco-2 cell-line, both in dividing (undifferentiated) and in 10-12 days post-confluent cells (differentiated). Genotoxicity was evaluated(More)
The present study deals with the genotoxicity assessment of vineyard pesticides in fish exposed in the field or in mesocosm conditions. Primary DNA damage was quantified as strand breaks using the single cell gel electrophoresis assay (Comet assay) applied to fish erythrocytes. In a first experiment, a significant genotoxic effect was observed following an(More)
The implementation of an ecological risk assessment framework is presented for dredged material deposits on soil close to a canal and groundwater, and tested with sediment samples from canals in northern France. This framework includes two steps: a simplified risk assessment based on contaminant concentrations and a detailed risk assessment based on(More)
Management of contaminated dredged sediments is a matter of great human concern. The present investigation evaluates the genotoxic potential of aqueous extracts of five sediments from French channels (draining water from dredged sediments), using larvae of the frog Xenopus laevis. Two genotoxic endpoints were analyzed in larvae: clastogenic and/or aneugenic(More)
Cadmium poses a serious environmental threat in aquatic ecosystems but the mechanisms of its toxicity remain unclear. The purpose of this work was first to determine whether cadmium induced apoptosis in trout hepatocytes, second to determine whether or not reactive oxygen species (ROS) were involved in cadmium-induced apoptosis and genotoxicity. Hepatocytes(More)
The genotoxic risk associated with deoxynivalenol (DON), a prevalent trichothecene mycotoxin which contaminates cereal-based products has not yet been deeply explored. In this work, the alkaline version of the Comet assay was used to evaluate DNA damage stemming from DON exposure in both dividing and differentiated Caco-2 cells, an epithelial intestinal(More)
The alkaline comet assay was performed to measure DNA integrity in fish hepatocytes. Primary cultures of rainbow trout hepatocytes were exposed to two known genotoxic compounds, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), and to organic extracts of river sediments. The DNA damage in the form of single-strand breaks was monitored following the(More)
This study was carried out to test how sperm cryopreservation affected nuclear DNA stability and whether progeny development was modified when eggs were fertilized with cryopreserved spermatozoa. The "comet assay" (alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis assay) was adapted to trout spermatozoa to estimate DNA stability as measured by alkali-induced DNA(More)
This work describes some consequences of paternal germ cell DNA damage on the reproduction success in two fish species. Male brown trout (n=31) and male Arctic charr (n=28) were exposed to the model genotoxicant MMS at the end of spermatogenesis to generate a significant DNA damage level in mature spermatozoa (28% and 25% tail DNA in trout and charr sperm,(More)
Induction of 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity (a cytochrome P450IA-dependent activity) by beta-naphthoflavone (0.36 microM) is increased 2-3-fold by dexamethasone or cortisol (10(-9)-10(-7) M) in rainbow trout hepatocyte cultures. This potentiation does not seem to be a time-dependent process and could be a classical glucocorticoid receptor-mediated(More)