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Insulin resistance plays an important role in the pathophysiology of diabetes and is associated with obesity and other cardiovascular risk factors. The "gold standard" glucose clamp and minimal model analysis are two established methods for determining insulin sensitivity in vivo, but neither is easily implemented in large studies. Thus, it is of interest(More)
OBJECTIVE This study evaluates the ability of the incretin mimetic exenatide (exendin-4) to improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes failing to achieve glycemic control with maximally effective metformin doses. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A triple-blind, placebo-controlled, 30-week study at 82 U.S. sites was performed with 336 randomized(More)
OBJECTIVE This study evaluated the ability of the incretin mimetic exenatide (exendin-4) to improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes failing maximally effective doses of a sulfonylurea as monotherapy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a triple-blind, placebo-controlled, 30-week study conducted at 101 sites in the U.S. After a 4-week,(More)
OBJECTIVE This study evaluated the effects of exenatide, a novel incretin mimetic, in hyperglycemic patients with type 2 diabetes unable to achieve glycemic control with metformin-sulfonylurea combination therapy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A 30-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed in 733 subjects (aged 55 +/- 10 years, BMI 33.6 +/-(More)
BACKGROUND Activation of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptors improves insulin sensitivity and induces vasodilatation and diuresis. AC3174 is a peptide analogue with pharmacologic properties similar to the GLP-1 receptor agonist, exenatide. Hypothetically, chronic AC3174 treatment could attenuate salt-induced hypertension, cardiac morbidity, insulin(More)
The effects of the incretin mimetic exenatide (exendin-4) on metabolic parameters, insulin sensitivity, and beta-cell mass were examined in nondiabetic, insulin-resistant obese fa/fa Zucker rats. After 6 wk of treatment, ad libitum-fed exenatide-treated (EX) and pair-fed vehicle control (PF) rats had comparable food intake, body weight, hemoglobin A(1c)(More)
BACKGROUND Accumulating evidence suggests glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) exerts cardioprotective effects in animal models of myocardial infarction (MI). We hypothesized that chronic treatment with GLP-1 or the exenatide analog AC3174 would improve cardiac function, cardiac remodeling, insulin sensitivity, and exercise capacity (EC) in rats with MI-induced(More)
OBJECTIVE Whereas new diagnostic criteria based on a fasting plasma glucose (FPG) of > 126 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/l) have improved the detection of diabetes, multiple reports indicate that many people with diabetes diagnosed by 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) glucose measurements > or = 11.1 mmol/l (200 mg/dl) would remain undiagnosed based on this FPG(More)
OBJECTIVE In patients with long-standing type 1 diabetes, we investigated whether improved beta-cell function can be achieved by combining intensive insulin therapy with agents that may 1) promote beta-cell growth and/or limit beta-cell apoptosis and 2) weaken the anti-beta-cell autoimmunity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS For this study, 20 individuals(More)
The normal action of insulin to vasodilate and redistribute blood flow in support of skeletal muscle metabolism is impaired in insulin-resistant states. Increased endogenous endothelin contributes to endothelial dysfunction in obesity and diabetes. Here, we test the hypothesis that increased endogenous endothelin action also contributes to skeletal muscle(More)