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Insulin resistance plays an important role in the pathophysiology of diabetes and is associated with obesity and other cardiovascular risk factors. The "gold standard" glucose clamp and minimal model analysis are two established methods for determining insulin sensitivity in vivo, but neither is easily implemented in large studies. Thus, it is of interest(More)
OBJECTIVE This study evaluated the ability of the incretin mimetic exenatide (exendin-4) to improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes failing maximally effective doses of a sulfonylurea as monotherapy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a triple-blind, placebo-controlled, 30-week study conducted at 101 sites in the U.S. After a 4-week,(More)
BACKGROUND Activation of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptors improves insulin sensitivity and induces vasodilatation and diuresis. AC3174 is a peptide analogue with pharmacologic properties similar to the GLP-1 receptor agonist, exenatide. Hypothetically, chronic AC3174 treatment could attenuate salt-induced hypertension, cardiac morbidity, insulin(More)
The effects of the incretin mimetic exenatide (exendin-4) on metabolic parameters, insulin sensitivity, and beta-cell mass were examined in nondiabetic, insulin-resistant obese fa/fa Zucker rats. After 6 wk of treatment, ad libitum-fed exenatide-treated (EX) and pair-fed vehicle control (PF) rats had comparable food intake, body weight, hemoglobin A(1c)(More)
BACKGROUND Accumulating evidence suggests glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) exerts cardioprotective effects in animal models of myocardial infarction (MI). We hypothesized that chronic treatment with GLP-1 or the exenatide analog AC3174 would improve cardiac function, cardiac remodeling, insulin sensitivity, and exercise capacity (EC) in rats with MI-induced(More)
BACKGROUND Alterations in platelet reactivity have been previously posited to underlie the increased vulnerability of patients with depression to ischemic heart disease (IHD). The present study sought to determine whether the increased platelet reactivity associated with major depression is reduced after antidepressant treatment. METHODS Patients(More)
BACKGROUND Obesity is a more potent cardiovascular risk factor (CVRF) in men than in women. Because traditional CVRFs cannot fully account for this sex difference, we tested the hypothesis that compared with men, women exhibit more robust endothelial function independent of obesity and that this sex difference is abrogated by diabetes. METHODS AND RESULTS(More)
OBJECTIVE In patients with long-standing type 1 diabetes, we investigated whether improved beta-cell function can be achieved by combining intensive insulin therapy with agents that may 1) promote beta-cell growth and/or limit beta-cell apoptosis and 2) weaken the anti-beta-cell autoimmunity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS For this study, 20 individuals(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS Delayed-release metformin (Metformin DR) was developed to maximise gut-based mechanisms of metformin action by targeting the drug to the ileum. Metformin DR was evaluated in two studies. Study 1 compared the bioavailability and effects on circulating glucose and gut hormones (glucagon-like peptide-1, peptide YY) of Metformin DR dosed(More)
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