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Insulin resistance plays an important role in the pathophysiology of diabetes and is associated with obesity and other cardiovascular risk factors. The "gold standard" glucose clamp and minimal model analysis are two established methods for determining insulin sensitivity in vivo, but neither is easily implemented in large studies. Thus, it is of interest(More)
OBJECTIVE This study evaluated the effects of exenatide, a novel incretin mimetic, in hyperglycemic patients with type 2 diabetes unable to achieve glycemic control with metformin-sulfonylurea combination therapy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A 30-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed in 733 subjects (aged 55 +/- 10 years, BMI 33.6 +/-(More)
PURPOSE The pharmacology and tolerability of exenatide in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were studied. METHODS Two randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled studies were conducted. Treatment with oral antidiabetic agents was stopped 14 days before study initiation. In the first study (study A), eight subjects received placebo, 0.1-, 0.2-, 0.3-,(More)
OBJECTIVE This study evaluated the ability of the incretin mimetic exenatide (exendin-4) to improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes failing maximally effective doses of a sulfonylurea as monotherapy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a triple-blind, placebo-controlled, 30-week study conducted at 101 sites in the U.S. After a 4-week,(More)
OBJECTIVE This study evaluates the ability of the incretin mimetic exenatide (exendin-4) to improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes failing to achieve glycemic control with maximally effective metformin doses. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A triple-blind, placebo-controlled, 30-week study at 82 U.S. sites was performed with 336 randomized(More)
Body weight is regulated by complex neurohormonal interactions between endocrine signals of long-term adiposity (e.g., leptin, a hypothalamic signal) and short-term satiety (e.g., amylin, a hindbrain signal). We report that concurrent peripheral administration of amylin and leptin elicits synergistic, fat-specific weight loss in leptin-resistant,(More)
The purpose of this study was to examine whether insulin's effect to vasodilate skeletal muscle vasculature is mediated by endothelium-derived nitric oxide (EDNO). N-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), a specific inhibitor of NO synthase, was administered directly into the femoral artery of normal subjects at a dose of 16 mg/min and leg blood flow (LBF) was(More)
To test the hypothesis that obesity/insulin resistance impairs both endothelium-dependent vasodilation and insulin-mediated augmentation of endothelium-dependent vasodilation, we studied leg blood flow (LBF) responses to graded intrafemoral artery infusions of methacholine chloride (MCh) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP) during saline infusion and euglycemic(More)
BACKGROUND We recently reported endothelial dysfunction as a novel cardiovascular risk factor associated with insulin resistance/obesity. Here, we tested whether hyperandrogenic insulin-resistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) who are at increased risk of macrovascular disease display impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation and whether(More)
Despite the advent of new treatments, glucose control in the type 2 diabetes population is unsatisfactory. AC2993 (synthetic exendin-4; exenatide), a novel glucose-dependent insulinotropic agent, exhibited notable antidiabetic potential in two clinical studies in patients with type 2 diabetes. In study A, 24 subjects received sc injections of study(More)