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Insulin resistance plays an important role in the pathophysiology of diabetes and is associated with obesity and other cardiovascular risk factors. The "gold standard" glucose clamp and minimal model analysis are two established methods for determining insulin sensitivity in vivo, but neither is easily implemented in large studies. Thus, it is of interest(More)
OBJECTIVE This study evaluated the effects of exenatide, a novel incretin mimetic, in hyperglycemic patients with type 2 diabetes unable to achieve glycemic control with metformin-sulfonylurea combination therapy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A 30-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed in 733 subjects (aged 55 +/- 10 years, BMI 33.6 +/-(More)
OBJECTIVE This study evaluated the ability of the incretin mimetic exenatide (exendin-4) to improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes failing maximally effective doses of a sulfonylurea as monotherapy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a triple-blind, placebo-controlled, 30-week study conducted at 101 sites in the U.S. After a 4-week,(More)
OBJECTIVE This study evaluates the ability of the incretin mimetic exenatide (exendin-4) to improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes failing to achieve glycemic control with maximally effective metformin doses. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A triple-blind, placebo-controlled, 30-week study at 82 U.S. sites was performed with 336 randomized(More)
Obesity is characterized by decreased rates of skeletal muscle insulin-mediated glucose uptake (IMGU). Since IMGU equals the product of the arteriovenous glucose difference (AVGd) across muscle and blood flow into muscle, reduced blood flow and/or tissue activity (AVGd) can lead to decreased IMGU. To examine this issue, we studied six lean (weight 68 +/- 3(More)
Body weight is regulated by complex neurohormonal interactions between endocrine signals of long-term adiposity (e.g., leptin, a hypothalamic signal) and short-term satiety (e.g., amylin, a hindbrain signal). We report that concurrent peripheral administration of amylin and leptin elicits synergistic, fat-specific weight loss in leptin-resistant,(More)
PURPOSE The pharmacology and tolerability of exenatide in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were studied. METHODS Two randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled studies were conducted. Treatment with oral antidiabetic agents was stopped 14 days before study initiation. In the first study (study A), eight subjects received placebo, 0.1-, 0.2-, 0.3-,(More)
Patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) exhibit decreased rates of skeletal muscle insulin-mediated glucose uptake (IMGU). Because IMGU is equal to the product of the arteriovenous glucose difference (AVG delta) across and blood flow (F) into muscle (IMGU = AVG delta x F), reduced tissue permeability (AVG delta) and/or glucose and(More)
The objectives of this study were to evaluate test characteristics, such as normality of distribution, variation, and repeatability, of simple fasting measures of insulin sensitivity and to use the results to choose among these measures. Duplicate fasting samples of insulin and glucose were collected before 4 h of euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamping using(More)
The purpose of this study was to examine whether insulin's effect to vasodilate skeletal muscle vasculature is mediated by endothelium-derived nitric oxide (EDNO). N-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), a specific inhibitor of NO synthase, was administered directly into the femoral artery of normal subjects at a dose of 16 mg/min and leg blood flow (LBF) was(More)