Alain D . Baron

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Insulin resistance plays an important role in the pathophysiology of diabetes and is associated with obesity and other cardiovascular risk factors. The "gold standard" glucose clamp and minimal model analysis are two established methods for determining insulin sensitivity in vivo, but neither is easily implemented in large studies. Thus, it is of interest(More)
OBJECTIVE This study evaluated the effects of exenatide, a novel incretin mimetic, in hyperglycemic patients with type 2 diabetes unable to achieve glycemic control with metformin-sulfonylurea combination therapy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A 30-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed in 733 subjects (aged 55 +/- 10 years, BMI 33.6 +/-(More)
OBJECTIVE This study evaluates the ability of the incretin mimetic exenatide (exendin-4) to improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes failing to achieve glycemic control with maximally effective metformin doses. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A triple-blind, placebo-controlled, 30-week study at 82 U.S. sites was performed with 336 randomized(More)
OBJECTIVE This study evaluated the ability of the incretin mimetic exenatide (exendin-4) to improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes failing maximally effective doses of a sulfonylurea as monotherapy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a triple-blind, placebo-controlled, 30-week study conducted at 101 sites in the U.S. After a 4-week,(More)
We describe six patients (five women and one man; median age, 47 years; range, 39 to 54) with postprandial symptoms of neuroglycopenia owing to endogenous hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Except for equivocal evidence in one patient, there was no radiologic evidence of insulinoma. Selective arterial calcium-stimulation(More)
Body weight is regulated by complex neurohormonal interactions between endocrine signals of long-term adiposity (e.g., leptin, a hypothalamic signal) and short-term satiety (e.g., amylin, a hindbrain signal). We report that concurrent peripheral administration of amylin and leptin elicits synergistic, fat-specific weight loss in leptin-resistant,(More)
Obesity is characterized by decreased rates of skeletal muscle insulin-mediated glucose uptake (IMGU). Since IMGU equals the product of the arteriovenous glucose difference (AVGd) across muscle and blood flow into muscle, reduced blood flow and/or tissue activity (AVGd) can lead to decreased IMGU. To examine this issue, we studied six lean (weight 68 +/- 3(More)
To test the hypothesis that obesity/insulin resistance impairs both endothelium-dependent vasodilation and insulin-mediated augmentation of endothelium-dependent vasodilation, we studied leg blood flow (LBF) responses to graded intrafemoral artery infusions of methacholine chloride (MCh) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP) during saline infusion and euglycemic(More)
Despite the advent of new treatments, glucose control in the type 2 diabetes population is unsatisfactory. AC2993 (synthetic exendin-4; exenatide), a novel glucose-dependent insulinotropic agent, exhibited notable antidiabetic potential in two clinical studies in patients with type 2 diabetes. In study A, 24 subjects received sc injections of study(More)
The effects of the incretin mimetic exenatide (exendin-4) on metabolic parameters, insulin sensitivity, and beta-cell mass were examined in nondiabetic, insulin-resistant obese fa/fa Zucker rats. After 6 wk of treatment, ad libitum-fed exenatide-treated (EX) and pair-fed vehicle control (PF) rats had comparable food intake, body weight, hemoglobin A(1c)(More)