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Alcohol consumption is associated with decreased antiretroviral adherence, and decreased adherence results in poorer outcomes. However the magnitude of alcohol's impact on survival is unknown. Our objective was to use a calibrated and validated simulation of HIV disease to estimate the impact of alcohol on survival. We incorporated clinical data describing(More)
This study examined the effects of a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agent (NSAID) on physiological responses of calves immediately after hot-iron dehorning (DH) and during the time that local anesthetic (LA) wears off (2 to 3 h) after this procedure. Forty-six calves (33 +/- 0.3 d of age) were randomly assigned to 6 treatments: hot-iron DH versus sham DH(More)
The possibility that pain can be detected from changes in eye temperature and heart rate variability (HRV) during disbudding was examined in thirty calves, randomly assigned to four treatments: 1) sham handling (control), 2) local anaesthetic (LA, cornual nerve injection) and sham disbudded, 3) sham LA and disbudded, 4) LA and disbudded. During a 40 min(More)
Single-spin asymmetries for semi-inclusive electroproduction of charged pions in deep-inelastic scattering of positrons are measured for the first time with transverse target polarization. The asymmetry depends on the azimuthal angles of both the pion (phi) and the target spin axis (phi(S)) about the virtual-photon direction and relative to the lepton(More)
Spin-dependent lepton-nucleon scattering data have been used to investigate the validity of the concept of quark-hadron duality for the spin asymmetry A1. Longitudinally polarized positrons were scattered off a longitudinally polarized hydrogen target for values of Q2 between 1.2 and 12 GeV2 and values of W2 between 1 and 4 GeV2. The average double-spin(More)
Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRD) causes considerable economic loss and biosecurity cost to the beef industry globally and also results in significant degradation to the welfare of affected animals. The successful treatment of this disease depends on the early, timely and cost effective identification of affected animals. The objective of the present(More)
Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) complex causes considerable distress to domestic livestock and economic hardship to the beef industry. Furthermore, the resulting extensive use of antimicrobial treatments is a growing concern from the perspective of facilitating antibiotic resistant microbes. The earlier detection of BRD would enable an earlier, more(More)
The possibility that changes in eye temperature, measured using infrared thermography (IRT), can detect stress in dairy cattle was examined by six different stimulations of the stress axis. Six cows were given six treatments in a random Latin-square design: 1) Control (saline) 2) ACTH (0.05 mg Synacthen) 3) bCRH (20 mug) 4) bCRH (40 mug) 5) epinephrine (1.4(More)
An automated, non-invasive system for monitoring of thermoregulation has the potential to mitigate swine diseases through earlier detection. Measurement of radiated temperature of groups of animals by infrared thermography (IRT) is an essential component of such a system. This study reports on the feasibility of monitoring the radiated temperature of groups(More)
OBJECTIVES Determining the relationship between antiretroviral adherence and resistance accumulation is important for the design and evaluation of adherence interventions. Our objective was to explain heterogeneity observed in this relationship. METHODS We first conducted a systematic review to locate published reports describing the relationship between(More)