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The transcriptional complex hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) has emerged as an important mediator of gene expression patterns in tumors, although the range of responding genes is still incompletely defined. Here we show that the tumor-associated carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are tightly regulated by this system. Both CA9 and CA12 were strongly induced by(More)
Angiogenesis is a key process in tumor growth and metastasis and is a major independent prognostic factor in breast cancer. A range of cytokines stimulate the tumor neovasculature, and tumor-associated macrophages have been shown recently to produce several important angiogenic factors. We have quantified macrophage infiltration using Chalkley count(More)
PURPOSE To establish the safety and tolerability of ZD1839 (Iressa), a selective epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and to explore its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects in patients with selected solid tumor types. PATIENTS AND METHODS This was a phase I dose-escalating trial of oral ZD1839 150 mg/d to a maximum of(More)
  • A L Harris
  • Journal of the National Cancer Institute
  • 2005
Despite years of research and hundreds of reports on tumour markers in oncology, the number of markers that have emerged as clinically useful is pitifully small. Often initially reported studies of a marker show great promise, but subsequent studies on the same or related markers yield inconsistent conclusions or stand in direct contradiction to the(More)
Solid tumors contain regions of hypoxia, a physiological stress that can activate cell death pathways and, thus, result in the selection of cells resistant to death signals and anticancer therapy. Bcl2/adenovirus EIB 19kD-interacting protein 3 (BNIP3) is a cell death factor that is a member of the Bcl-2 proapoptotic family recently shown to induce necrosis(More)
Animal models suggest a role for new vessel formation (angiogenesis) in tumours with metastatic potential, and there is some evidence that this is true for human tumours. What is needed is a sensitive and specific label for endothelial cells, and one candidate would be a monoclonal antibody to platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM). We have(More)
Recent studies of tissue culture cells have defined a widespread system of oxygen-regulated gene expression based on the activation of a heterodimeric transcription factor termed hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1). To determine whether the HIF-1 transcriptional response is activated within solid tumors and to define the consequences, we have studied tumor(More)
There is increasing evidence that hypoxia-regulated gene expression influences tumor aggressiveness, contributing to the poorer outcome of patients with hypoxic tumors. The role of the transcriptional complex hypoxia-inducible factor-1 as an important mediator of hypoxia-regulated gene expression is one of the best documented pathways. Recently, it has(More)
Angiogenesis is essential to the growth and metastasis of solid tumours. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent pro-angiogenic cytokine that is overexpressed in malignant tumours such as invasive carcinoma of the breast. The low oxygen tensions (hypoxia) present in these tumours are known to up-regulate the expression of VEGF by tumour cells.(More)