Al Caraffa

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Proprioceptive training has been shown to reduce the incidence of ankle sprains in different sports. It can also improve rehabilitation after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries whether treated operatively or nonoperatively. Since ACL injuries lead to long absence from sports and are one of the main causes of permanent sports disability, it is(More)
The mechanism of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is still unclear. To gain this insight, knowledge of the mechanical behaviour of the healthy ACL during activities that may stress the ligament must be investigated in vivo. The goal of this research was to measure ACL strain in vivo during rapid deceleration, a sport type movement that has been(More)
Interleukin 12 (IL 12) p35/p40 is a heterodimeric cytokine which plays a critical role in inflammation, immunity and tissue proliferation, and also plays a relevant function in T helper (Th) cell polarization and Th1 T-cell differentiation. IL-12 family members, IL-12p70, IL-23, IL-27 and IL-35, play an important role in influencing helper T-cell(More)
An investigated flavonoid, quercetin, is reviewed in this article. Quercetin is a bioflavonoid found in red wine, grapefruit, onions, apples, black tea, and, in lesser amounts, in leafy green vegetables and beans. Quercetin has an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity and prevents cancer. Quercitin inhibits the growth of certain malignant cells in(More)
Inflammatory responses are operationally characterized by pain, redness, heat and swelling at the site of infection and trauma. Mast cells reside near small blood vessels and, when activated, release potent mediators involved in allergy and inflammation. Vitamin D modulates contraction, inflammation and remodeling tissue. Vitamin D deficiency has been(More)
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the most important inducers of angiogenesis, therefore blocking angiogenesis has led to great promise in the treatment of various cancers and inflammatory diseases. VEGF, expressed in response to soluble mediators such as cytokines and growth factors, is important in the physiological development of blood(More)
Autism spectrum disorder is of interest neurochemically because it represents a relatively homogeneous disorder with regard to disease development, abnormal cognitive development and intellectual development disturbance. A consistent finding in autistic children is a high number of mast cells and a high level of serotonin which is also found at elevated(More)
A high level of cholesterol is associated with obesity, cardiovascular diseases and atherosclerosis. Immune response in atherosclerosis is mediated by chemokines which attract monocytes, leading to the innate immune response characterised by the production of cytokines. The immunoregulatory cytokines are an important bridge between innate and adductive(More)
Cytokines such as interleukins, chemokines and interferons are immunomodulating and inflammatory agents, characterized by considerable redundancy, in that many cytokines appear to share similar functions. Virtually all nucleated cells, but especially epithelial cells and macrophages, are potent producers of cytokines. The objective of this study is to(More)
Cytokines are immunal regulatory proteins, however they also play a relevant role in inflammatory diseases. IL-31 is a newly discovered cytokine expressed primarily in TH2 cells, introduced by activated CD4+ T cells. IL-31 is capable of inducing chemokines and other cytokines in several inflammatory diseases via its surface receptor. This cytokine is also(More)