Alícia Cabral

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The neural substrate underlying the aversive effects induced by ethanol abstinence is still unclear. One candidate for such effects is the dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG), a core structure of the brain aversion system. The main aim of this study is to examine the role of the dPAG as a possible locus of the aversive effects following abrupt alcohol(More)
Anxiety is an affective symptom common to withdrawal from acute or chronic opiate treatment. Although the potentiation of the acoustic startle reflex has been proposed as an index of increased anxiety, there are variable effects of the opiate withdrawal on the startle reflex in chronic dependence models. On the other hand, withdrawal from acute morphine(More)
In the 1970s, chronic treatment with benzodiazepines was supposed not to cause dependence. However, by the end of the decade several reports showed that the interruption of a prolonged treatment with diazepam leads to a withdrawal syndrome characterized, among other symptoms, by an exaggerated level of anxiety. In laboratory animals, signs that oscillate(More)
The effects of the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) and the NO donor 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1) were tested in 18 endotoxic dogs. L-NMMA infusion (10 mg . kg-1 . h-1) increased arterial and pulmonary artery pressures and systemic and pulmonary vascular resistances but decreased cardiac index, left ventricular(More)
The inferior colliculus (IC) is primarily involved in the processing of acoustic stimuli, being in a position to send auditory information to motor centers that participate in behaviors such as prey catching and predators' avoidance. The role of the central nucleus of the IC (CIC) on fear and anxiety has been suggested on the basis that rats are able to(More)
Studies usually show better spatial learning in males and stronger emotional memory in females. Spatial memory differences could relate to diverse strategies, while dissimilar stress reactions could cause emotional memory differences. We compared male and female rats in two emotional (classical emotional conditioning and aversive discrimination memory) and(More)
Animal models are widely used to study alterations caused by Parkinson's disease (PD). However, in general, pharmacological models do not express the progressive nature of the disease, being characterized by immediate severe motor impairment after a single dose of the drug. Reserpine administration in rodents has been suggested as a pharmacological model of(More)
The chronotropic reactivity to beta-adrenergic stimulation was studied in isolated perfused hearts from sinoaortic baroreceptors denervated (SAD) rats in the phases of maximal tachycardia (5 h) and normalized heart rate (15 days) or after repeated injection of isoproterenol (1 mg/kg, 3 times daily for 10 days). The threshold doses of isoproterenol needed to(More)
We studied the hepato-splanchnic vascular response and changes in O2 extraction capabilities to a reduction in blood flow following endotoxemia. Fourteen anesthetized and mechanically ventilated dogs were divided into two groups of seven each. Group 1 received 2 mg/kg of E. coli endotoxin, and group 2 served as a control. After initial fluid resuscitation(More)
The present study was designed to investigate the role of the autonomic nervous system in experimental hypertension induced by chronic administration of N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) in the drinking water (1 mg/mL) over 6 days. L-NAME ingestion caused a large rise in resting mean arterial pressure (MAP) (175 +/- 5 mm Hg) and heart rate (HR) (440(More)