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Physically Uncloneable Functions (PUFs) [28] are noisy physical sources of randomness. As such, they are naturally appealing for cryptographic applications, and have caught the interest of both the-oreticians and practitioners. A major step towards understanding and securely using PUFs was recently taken in [Crypto 2011] where Brzuska, Fischlin, Schröder(More)
A number of works have investigated using tamper-proof hardware tokens as tools to achieve a variety of cryptographic tasks. In particular, Goldreich and Ostrovsky considered the problem of software protection via oblivious RAM. Goldwasser, Kalai, and Rothblum introduced the concept of one-time programs: in a one-time program, an honest sender sends a set(More)
Consider two parties Alice and Bob, who hold private inputs <i>x</i> and <i>y</i>, and wish to compute a function <i>f(x, y)</i> <i>privately</i> in the information theoretic sense; that is, each party should learn nothing beyond <i>f(x, y)</i>. However, the communication channel available to them is <i>noisy</i>. This means that the channel can introduce(More)
Two central notions of Zero Knowledge that provide strong, yet seemingly incomparable security guarantees against malicious veri-fiers are those of Statistical Zero Knowledge and Resettable Zero Knowledge. The current state of the art includes several feasibility and impossibility results regarding these two notions separately. However, the question of(More)
Most entropy notions $${H(.)}$$ H ( . ) like Shannon or min-entropy satisfy a chain rule stating that for random variables $${X,Z,}$$ X , Z , and $${A}$$ A we have $${H(X|Z,A)\ge H(X|Z)-|A|}$$ H ( X | Z , A ) ≥ H ( X | Z ) - | A | . That is, by conditioning on $${A}$$ A the entropy of $${X}$$ X can decrease by at most the bitlength $${|A|}$$ | A | of(More)
A chain rule for an entropy notion H(·) states that the en-tropy H(X) of a variable X decreases by at most if conditioned on an All natural information theoretic entropy notions we are aware of (like Shannon or min-entropy) satisfy some kind of chain rule for conditional entropy. Moreover, many computational entropy notions (like Yao en-tropy,(More)
MOTIVATION High-throughput sequencing technologies have impacted many areas of genetic research. One such area is the identification of relatives from genetic data. The standard approach for the identification of genetic relatives collects the genomic data of all individuals and stores it in a database. Then, each pair of individuals is compared to detect(More)
A Captcha is a puzzle that is easy for humans but hard to solve for computers. A formal framework, modelling Captcha puzzles (as hard AI problems), was introduced by Ahn, Blum, Hopper, and Langford ([ABHL03], Eurocrypt 2003). Despite their attractive features and wide adoption in practice, the use of Captcha puzzles for general cryptographic applications(More)
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