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Physically Uncloneable Functions (PUFs) [28] are noisy physical sources of randomness. As such, they are naturally appealing for cryptographic applications, and have caught the interest of both the-oreticians and practitioners. A major step towards understanding and securely using PUFs was recently taken in [Crypto 2011] where Brzuska, Fischlin, Schröder(More)
A number of works have investigated using tamper-proof hardware tokens as tools to achieve a variety of cryptographic tasks. In particular, Goldreich and Ostrovsky considered the problem of software protection via oblivious RAM. Goldwasser, Kalai, and Rothblum introduced the concept of one-time programs: in a one-time program, an honest sender sends a set(More)
Most entropy notions $${H(.)}$$ H ( . ) like Shannon or min-entropy satisfy a chain rule stating that for random variables $${X,Z,}$$ X , Z , and $${A}$$ A we have $${H(X|Z,A)\ge H(X|Z)-|A|}$$ H ( X | Z , A ) ≥ H ( X | Z ) - | A | . That is, by conditioning on $${A}$$ A the entropy of $${X}$$ X can decrease by at most the bitlength $${|A|}$$ | A | of(More)
Consider two parties Alice and Bob, who hold private inputs <i>x</i> and <i>y</i>, and wish to compute a function <i>f(x, y)</i> <i>privately</i> in the information theoretic sense; that is, each party should learn nothing beyond <i>f(x, y)</i>. However, the communication channel available to them is <i>noisy</i>. This means that the channel can introduce(More)
Two central notions of Zero Knowledge that provide strong, yet seemingly incomparable security guarantees against malicious veri-fiers are those of Statistical Zero Knowledge and Resettable Zero Knowledge. The current state of the art includes several feasibility and impossibility results regarding these two notions separately. However, the question of(More)
MOTIVATION High-throughput sequencing technologies have impacted many areas of genetic research. One such area is the identification of relatives from genetic data. The standard approach for the identification of genetic relatives collects the genomic data of all individuals and stores it in a database. Then, each pair of individuals is compared to detect(More)
A Captcha is a puzzle that is easy for humans but hard to solve for computers. A formal framework, modelling Captcha puzzles (as hard AI problems), was introduced by Ahn, Blum, Hopper, and Langford ([ABHL03], Eurocrypt 2003). Despite their attractive features and wide adoption in practice, the use of Captcha puzzles for general cryptographic applications(More)
BACKGROUND Social media offer an unprecedented opportunity to explore how people talk about health care at a very large scale. Numerous studies have shown the importance of websites with user forums for people seeking information related to health. Parents turn to some of these sites, colloquially referred to as "mommy blogs," to share concerns about(More)
Most entropy notions H(.) like Shannon or min-entropy satisfy a chain rule stating that for random variables X, Z and A we have H(X|Z, A) ≥ H(X|Z) − |A|. That is, by conditioning on A the entropy of X can decrease by at most the bitlength |A| of A. Such chain rules are known to hold for some computational entropy notions like Yao's and(More)