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Understanding causal relationships among large numbers of variables is a fundamental goal of biomedical sciences and can be facilitated by Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAGs) where directed edges between nodes represent the influence of components of the system on each other. In an observational setting, some of the directions are often unidentifiable because of(More)
Causal analyses and causal inference is a growing area of biostatics. In parallel, there is increasing focus on using genomic information to guide medical practice, i.e. personalized medicine or decision medicine. This perspective discusses causal inference in the context of personalized or decision medicine, including the assumptions and the concept that(More)
Plasma triglyceride levels are a risk factor for coronary heart disease. Triglyceride metabolism is well characterized, but challenges remain to identify novel paths to lower levels. A metabolomics analysis may help identify such novel pathways and, therefore, provide hints about new drug targets. In an observational study, causal relationships in the(More)
Untargeted metabolomics, measurement of large numbers of metabolites irrespective of their chemical or biologic characteristics, has proven useful for identifying novel biomarkers of health and disease. Of particular importance is the analysis of networks of metabolites, as opposed to the level of an individual metabolite. The aim of this study is to(More)
Fatty acids are important sources of energy and possible predictors and etiologic factors in many common complex pathologies such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and certain forms of cancers. While fatty acids are thought to covary with each other, their underlying causal networks have not been fully elucidated. This study reports the identification(More)
Availability of affordable and accessible whole genome sequencing for biomedical applications poses a number of statistical challenges and opportunities, particularly related to the analysis of rare variants and sparseness of the data. Although efforts have been devoted to address these challenges, the performance of statistical methods for rare variants(More)
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