Akram M. Zeki

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This paper presents and compares techniques that have been used to segment Arabic handwriting scripts in online recognition systems. Those techniques attempt to segment cursive Arabic words into characters, or segment characters into small strokes that can be recognized via the recognition system. The structure and strategy of those reviewed techniques are(More)
Steganography is a technique used to transmit hidden information by modifying an audio signal in an imperceptible manner. The transmission must be possible in spite of subsequent imperceptible alterations (attacks) of the modified signal. We propose a novel approach of substitution technique of audio steganography. Using genetic algorithm, message bits are(More)
A wide range of steganography techniques has been described in this paper. Beside the evaluation of embedding parameters for the existing techniques, two problems -weaknesses- of substitution techniques are investigated which if they could be solved, the large capacity - strength- of substitution techniques would be practical. Furthermore, a novel,(More)
Least Significant Bit (LSB) technique is the earliest developed technique in watermarking and it is also the most simple, direct and common technique. It essentially involves embedding the watermark by replacing the least significant bit of the image data with a bit of the watermark data. The disadvantage of LSB is that it is not robust against attacks. In(More)
In this paper, we present a novel, principled approach to resolve the remained problems of substitution technique of audio steganography. Using the proposed genetic algorithm, message bits are embedded into multiple, vague and higher LSB layers, resulting in increased robustness. The robustness specially would be increased against those intentional attacks(More)
Steganography has proven to be one of the practical ways of securing data. It is a new kind of secret communication used mainly to hide secret data inside other innocent digital mediums. Most of existing steganographic techniques use digital multimedia files as cover mediums to hide secret data. Audio files and signals make appropriate mediums for(More)
This paper proposes a robust digital image watermarking techniques by using discrete wavelet transform. The watermark is embedded in 2-level diagonal coefficient to achieve high performance in term of imperceptibility. The watermark is embedded by selecting a seed that generating pseudorandom noise sequence. Then the Watermark is extracted back by using the(More)
Steganography is a technique used to transmit hidden information by modifying an audio signal in an imperceptible manner. The transmission must be possible in spite of subsequent imperceptible alterations (attacks) of the modified signal. We propose a novel approach of substitution technique of audio steganography. Using genetic algorithm, message bits are(More)
Over the years an increasing demand for an automated security system begins to emerge. Many applications that help in protecting life and properties are being developed. Most of them are aimed at improving the work of security personnel and security agencies. However, security is a responsibility of everyone not only the security agencies or security(More)