Akmal Javaid

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Being most popular and IETF standard metric, minimum hop count is appropriately used by Ad hoc Networks, as new paths must rapidly be found in the situations where quality paths could not be found in due time due to high node mobility. There always has been a tradeoff between throughput and energy consumption, but stationary topology of WMNs and high node(More)
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are comprised of thousands of sensor nodes, with restricted energy, that cooperate to accomplish a sensing task. Various routing Protocols are designed for transmission in WSNs. In this paper, we proposed a hybrid routing protocol: Zonal-Stable Election Protocol (Z-SEP) for heterogeneous WSNs. In this protocol, some nodes(More)
In this paper, we propose the mobility of a sink in improved energy efficient PEGASIS-based protocol (IEEPB) to advance the network lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). The multi-head chain, multi-chain concept and the sink mobility affects largely in enhancing the network lifetime of wireless sensors. Thus, we recommend Mobile sink improved(More)
Flooding is a fundamental and effective data dissemination mechanism for route discovery, address resolution and many other network services in MANET, cause redundant rebroadcasts, which in result leads to the broadcast storm problem. Although many approaches have been proposed to solve the broadcast storm problem, none have been regarded as the satisfying(More)
The clustering algorithm are considered as a kind of key technique used to reduce energy consumption. It can help in increasing the stability period and network life time. Routing protocol for efficient energy utilization should be designed for heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). We purpose Hybrid-DEEC (H-DEEC), a chain and cluster based (hybrid)(More)
This paper presents comparison of Access Techniques used in Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs). Comparison is performed between Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA), Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA), Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA), Pure ALOHA and Slotted ALOHA (S-ALOHA).(More)
In Wireless sensor networks, several routing protocols have been developed to improve the various parameters such as stability period, throughput etc . After a homogenous protocol leach, many heterogeneous protocol were developed which successfully improved the routing in WSNs . In this Paper we studied one of the heterogeneous protocol DEEC and its(More)
Abstract—In this paper, we have modeled the routing overhead generated by three reactive routing protocols; Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV), Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and DYnamic MANET On-deman (DYMO). Routing performed by reactive protocols consists of two phases; route discovery and route maintenance. Total cost paid by a protocol for efficient(More)
This paper deals with the routing protocols for distributed wireless sensor networks. The conventional protocols for WSNs like Low Energy adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH), Stable Election Protocol (SEP), Threshold Sensitive Energy Efficient Network (TEEN), Distributed Energy Efficient Clustering Protocol (DEEC) may not be optimal. We propose a scheme(More)
In this paper, we propose a new Quality Link Metric (QLM), “Inverse Expected Transmission Count (InvETX)” in Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) protocol. Then we compare performance of three existing QLMs which are based on loss probability measurements; Expected Transmission Count (ETX), Minimum Delay (MD), Minimum Loss (ML) in Static Wireless Multi-hop(More)