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Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are comprised of thousands of sensor nodes, with restricted energy, that cooperate to accomplish a sensing task. Various routing Protocols are designed for transmission in WSNs. In this paper, we proposed a hybrid routing protocol: Zonal-Stable Election Protocol (Z-SEP) for heterogeneous WSNs. In this protocol, some nodes(More)
Being most popular and IETF standard metric, minimum hop count is appropriately used by Ad hoc Networks, as new paths must rapidly be found in the situations where quality paths could not be found in due time due to high node mobility. There always has been a tradeoff between throughput and energy consumption, but stationary topology of WMNs and high node(More)
—In this paper, we have modeled the routing overhead generated by three reactive routing protocols; Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV), Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and DYnamic MANET On-deman (DYMO). Routing performed by reactive protocols consists of two phases; route discovery and route maintenance. Total cost paid by a protocol for efficient routing(More)
— The clustering algorithm are considered as a kind of key technique used to reduce energy consumption. logically divide the network into two parts, on the basis of the residual energy of nodes. The normal nodes with high initial and residual energy will behighlyprobable to be CHs than the nodes with lesser energy. To overcome the deficiencies of H-DEEC, we(More)
stability period and number of packets sent to BS. The stability period of the existing protocols prolongs by implementing ACH on them. In Direct Transmission [1], each node in the sensor network communicates directly to BS. In the aforementioned protocol, farthest nodes die faster than the nearest nodes. In Minimum transmission energy [2] routing protocol(More)
annales des telecommunications manuscript No. Abstract In this paper, we propose a new Quality Link Metric (QLM), " Inverse Expected Transmission Count (InvETX) " in Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) protocol. Then we compare performance of three existing QLMs which are based on loss probability measurements; Expected Transmission Count (ETX), Minimum(More)
With increase in ageing population, health care market keeps growing. There is a need for monitoring of health issues. Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) consists of wireless sensors attached on or inside human body for monitoring vital health related problems e.g, Electro Cardiogram (ECG), Electro Encephalogram (EEG), ElectronyStagmography (ENG) etc. Due to(More)
— In this paper, we propose the mobility of a sink in improved energy efficient PEGASIS-based protocol (IEEPB) to advance the network lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). The multi-head chain, multi-chain concept and the sink mobility affects largely in enhancing the network lifetime of wireless sensors. Thus, we recommend Mobile sink improved(More)
Flooding is a fundamental and effective data dissemination mechanism for route discovery, address resolution and many other network services in MANET, cause redundant rebroadcasts, which in result leads to the broadcast storm problem. Although many approaches have been proposed to solve the broadcast storm problem, none have been regarded as the satisfying(More)
—In Wireless Multi-hop Networks (WMhNs), routing protocols with energy efficient and delay reduction techniques are needed to fulfill users' demands. In this paper, we present Linear Programming models (LP models) to assess and enhance reactive routing protocols. To practically examine constraints of respective LP models over reactive protocols, we select(More)