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The cellular events that precede myelination in the peripheral nervous system require rapid and dynamic morphological changes in the Schwann cell. These events are thought to be mainly controlled by axonal signals. But how signals on the axons are coordinately organized and transduced to promote proliferation, migration, radial sorting, and myelination is(More)
Vasopressin receptor subtype(s) responsible for stimulation of insulin release from pancreatic beta cells were investigated by using subtype-selective antagonists and mice that were genetically lacking either V1a or V1b receptors. Arginine vasopressin (AVP) increased insulin release from isolated mouse islet cells in a concentration-dependent manner, with a(More)
Small GTPases of the Rho family play key roles in the formation of neuronal axons and dendrites by transducing signals from guidance cues, such as neurotrophins, to the actin cytoskeleton. However, there is little insight into the mechanism by which neurotrophins regulate Rho GTPases. Here, we show the crucial role of the ubiquitous Rac1-specific guanine(More)
The neurohypophysial hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP) is essential for a wide range of physiological functions, including water reabsorption, cardiovascular homeostasis, hormone secretion, and social behavior. These and other actions of AVP are mediated by at least three distinct receptor subtypes: V1a, V1b, and V2. Although the antidiuretic action of AVP(More)
We have reported that [Arg(8)]-vasopressin-stimulated insulin release is blunted in islet cells isolated from V1b receptor-deficient (V1bR(-/-)) mice. In this study, we used V1bR(-/-) mice to examine the physiological role of the V1b receptor in regulating blood glucose levels in vivo, and we found that the fasting plasma glucose, insulin and glucagon(More)
Purinergic P2X receptors are ion-conducting channels composed of three subunits, each having two transmembrane domains and intracellular amino (N) and carboxyl (C) termini. Although alternative splicing extensively modifies the C-terminal sequences of P2X subunits, the direct influence of such post-transcriptional modifications on receptor architecture and(More)
In development of the peripheral nervous system, Schwann cells proliferate, migrate, and ultimately differentiate to form myelin sheath. In all of the myelination stages, Schwann cells continuously undergo morphological changes; however, little is known about their underlying molecular mechanisms. We previously cloned the dock7 gene encoding the atypical(More)
Small GTPases of the Rho family, Rho, Rac, and Cdc42, are critical regulators of the changes in the actin cytoskeleton. Rho GTPases are typically activated by Dbl-homology (DH)-domain-containing guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). Recent genetic and biochemical studies revealed a new type of GEF for the Rho GTPases. This family is composed of 11(More)
Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) differentiate into oligodendrocytes (OLs) in order to form myelin, which is required for the rapid propagation of action potentials in the vertebrate nervous system. In spite of the considerable clinical importance of myelination, little is known about the basic molecular mechanisms underlying OL differentiation and(More)
P2X purinergic receptors (P2XRs) differ among themselves with respect to their ligand preferences and channel kinetics during activation, desensitization, and recovery. However, the contributions of distinct receptor subdomains to the subtype-specific behavior have been incompletely characterized. Here we show that homomeric receptors having the(More)