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An efficient emission of picosecond bunches of energetic protons and carbon ions from a thin layer spalled from a organic solid by a laser prepulse is demonstrated numerically. We combine the molecular dynamics technique and multi-component collisional particle-in-cell method with plasma ionization to simulate the laser spallation and ejection of a thin (∼(More)
Collisional-radiative atomic models are widely used to help diagnose experimental plasma conditions through fitting and interpreting measured spectra. Here we present the results of a code comparison in which a variety of models determined plasma temperatures and densities by finding the best fit to an experimental L-shell Kr spectrum from a well(More)
Versatile functionalization of metal clusters is a key step in understanding the reactivity of protective monolayers. We here demonstrate that reaction of the outermost amino groups on (S)-/(R)-penicillamine-protected gold clusters with ethyl isocyanate readily modifies the chiral surface structure through carbamoylation. Interestingly, the clusters are(More)
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