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Membrane transporters that use energy stored in sodium gradients to drive nutrients into cells constitute a major class of proteins. We report the crystal structure of a member of the solute sodium symporters (SSS), the Vibrio parahaemolyticus sodium/galactose symporter (vSGLT). The approximately 3.0 angstrom structure contains 14 transmembrane (TM) helices(More)
The interaction of listening to words and watching sign language in short-term and long-term cochlear implant (CI) users who have learned sign language after becoming deaf was measured using PET. In short-term CI users the auditory cortex was inactive while in long-term CI users it was fully activated with the simultaneous presentation of auditory and(More)
In this paper I account for a range of facts about the position and form of arguments in Icelandic using a theory that is based on Chomsky's (1993) Minimalist program, but that incorporates morphological case as well as positional licensing. The analysis both assumes and reinforces the view that positional licensing (" abstract Case ") is independent of(More)
BACKGROUND For regenerative therapy using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology, cell type of origin to be reprogrammed should be chosen based on accessibility and reprogramming efficiency. Some studies report that iPSCs exhibited a preference for differentiation into their original cell lineages, while others did not. Therefore, the type of cell(More)
OBJECTIVE This study investigated the relationship between patients' reasoning about medication adherence and neurocognitive and clinical indices for a treatment-compliant sample of Japanese patients with schizophrenia. METHODS Subjective reasoning about medication adherence was assessed by the Rating of Medication Influences (ROMI) scale. General(More)
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe muscle-degenerative disease caused by a mutation in the dystrophin gene. Genetic correction of patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by TALENs or CRISPR-Cas9 holds promise for DMD gene therapy; however, the safety of such nuclease treatment must be determined. Using a unique k-mer database, we(More)
We assessed the cerebral hemoglobin oxygenation response in the left frontal area in 62 schizophrenia patients and 31 healthy subjects during a verbal fluency test (VF) and letter number span test (LN) measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Oxygenated hemoglobin (oxyHb) increased during VF and LN in both groups. Schizophrenia patients showed lower(More)