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The scaling of respiratory metabolism with body mass is one of the most pervasive phenomena in biology. Using a single allometric equation to characterize empirical scaling relationships and to evaluate alternative hypotheses about mechanisms has been controversial. We developed a method to directly measure respiration of 271 whole plants, spanning nine(More)
Spatial distributions of root systems of Larix gmelinii (Rupr.) Rupr. trees were examined in two stands in central Siberia: an even-aged stand (ca. 100 yrs-old) and a mature, uneven-aged (240–280 yrs-old) stand. Five larch trees of different sizes were sampled by excavating coarse roots (diameter > 5 mm) in each stand. Dimensions and ages of all first-order(More)
A new approach is proposed to estimate fine root production, mortality, and decomposition that occur simultaneously in terrestrial ecosystems utilizing sequential soil core sampling or ingrowth core techniques. The calculation assumes knowledge of the decomposition rate of dead fine roots during a given time period from a litter bag experiment. A mass(More)
A Matrix Converter is an electricity converter to operate direct convertion of Variable Voltage Variable Frequency (VVVF) without Direct Convertion (DC) link part. Some applied examples of motor drives by the Matrix Converter (Fig.1). This paper presents basic characteristic of parallel-connected dual induction motor drives with the Matrix Converter.(More)
The population changes of early successional forest species, Wendlandia paniculata, Schima wallichii, Camellia tsaii, and Lithocarpus ducampii, were described and analyzed in a chronosequence of 1–30 year-old secondary forests representing regrowth after shifting cultivation in northwestern Vietnam, utilizing 51 temporary plots for stem census. Another five(More)
A hypothesis that the pattern of spatial leaf distribution in forest canopies is numerically related to the exponent of the self-thinning relationship in even-aged monocultures was tested by evaluating the crown fractal dimension of Pinus banksiana (jack pine) and Populus tremuloides (quaking aspen) in Wood Buffalo National Park, Canada. Pure species stands(More)
We present results of individual-based root system measurement and analysis applied for Larix gmelinii trees growing on the continuous permafrost region of central Siberia. The data of root excavation taken from the three stands were used for the analyses; young (26 years old), mature (105 years old), and uneven-aged over-mature stand (220 years old). In(More)
To estimate cause-and-effect relationships of decomposition rates of fine root litter up to 2 mm in diameter, we explored the relationships between mass loss rates and substrate litter properties with respect to chemical and morphological dynamics. Mass loss, nitrogen (N) concentration, specific root area (SRA), root tissue density (RTD), and their(More)
A block placement program and a routing program for inter-block connection of master-slice LSI's are described. The placement program reduces the total expected wire length, by iterative improvements of block placement and gate assignment to blocks. The routing program employs Lee's algorithm basically, and modifications have been made to increase(More)