Akira Onodera

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The production of the heavy metal-binding proteins, the metallothioneins (MTs), is induced by heavy metals such as Zn, Cd, and Hg. MTs maintain Zn homeostasis and attenuate heavy metal-induced cytotoxicity by sequestering these metals and lowering their intracellular concentrations. Previously, we had reported that Zn induced the formation of a co-activator(More)
Orally administered Cd is predominantly distributed to the intestine, and the majority of this mucosal Cd is bound to metallothionein (MT). MT attenuates heavy metal-induced cytotoxicity by sequestering these metals and lowering their intracellular concentrations. In addition, MT acts as an extracellular transporter of orally administered Cd to the kidney.(More)
Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a carcinogenic heavy metal that is reduced to intermediate oxidation states, such as Cr(V) and Cr(IV), in the process of forming stable Cr(III) forms; it is these intermediate forms that are thought to be responsible for much of the DNA damage and mutations that are induced by Cr(VI). Metallothionein (MT), a heavy(More)
There have been several reported studies on the distribution and/or toxicity of nanosilica particles. However, the influence of these particles on blood vessels through which they are distributed is poorly understood. Hence, we investigated the effects of nano- and micromaterials on blood vessel shrinkage and relaxation. Nanosilica particles with diameters(More)
An efficient and practical procedure for the synthesis of esonarimod, (R,S)-2-acetylthiomethyl-4-(4-methylphenyl)-4-oxobutanoic acid (1), a new antirheumatic drug, has been developed. The intermediate, 2-methylene-4-(4-methylphenyl)-4-oxobutanoic acid (2), was prepared by Friedel-Crafts acylation of toluene with itaconic anhydride (3) in the presence of(More)
We have developed esonarimod, (+/-)-2-acetylthiomethyl-4-(4-methylphenyl)-4-oxobutanoic acid, as a new antirheumatic drug. Now we describe herein the preparation of the enantiomers of (+/-)-deacetylesonarimod, the pharmaceutically active metabolites of esonarimod, and comparison of their antirheumatic activities. No significant difference has been observed(More)
Exposure to mild stress by chemicals and radiation causes DNA damage and leads to acquired stress resistance. Although the linear no-threshold (LNT) model of safety assessment assumes risk from any dose, evidence from radiological research demonstrates a conflicting hormetic phenomenon known as the hormesis effect. However, the mechanisms underlying(More)
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