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Bacterial alarmone (p)ppGpp, is a global regulator responsible for the stringent control. Two homologous (p)ppGpp synthetases, RelA and SpoT, have been identified and characterized in Escherichia coli, whereas Gram-positive bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis have been thought to possess only a single RelA-SpoT enzyme. We have now identified two genes, yjbM(More)
Arabidopsis thaliana calcineurin B-like protein (AtCBL2) is a member of a recently identified family of calcineurin B-like calcium-binding proteins in A. thaliana. The crystal structure of AtCBL2 has been determined at 2.1 A resolution. The protein forms a compact alpha-helical structure with two pairs of EF-hand motifs. The structure is similar in overall(More)
An Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA library was introduced into a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant that lacks ScBOR1 (YNL275W), a boron (B) efflux transporter. Five cDNAs were identified that confer tolerance to high boric acid. The nucleotide sequence analysis identified the clones as a polyadenylate-binding protein, AtPAB2; a ribosomal small subunit protein,(More)
The roles of three membrane proteins, BOR1, DUR3, and FPS1, in boron (B) transport in yeast were examined. The boron concentration in yeast cells lacking BOR1 was elevated upon exposure to 90 mM boric acid, whereas cells lacking DUR3 or FPS1 showed lower boron concentrations. Compared with control cells, cells overexpressing BOR1 or FPS1 had a lower boron(More)
BACKGROUND Ubiquitination is mediated by the sequential action of at least three enzymes: the E1 (ubiquitin-activating enzyme), E2 (ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme) and E3 (ubiquitin ligase) proteins. Polyubiquitination of target proteins is also implicated in several critical cellular processes. Although Arabidopsis genome research has estimated more than(More)
Protein phosphorylation is one of the main process in the signal transduction pathway. In recent years, there has been increasing attention to plant phosphorylation signaling and many laboratories are trying to elucidate pathways using various approaches. Although more than 1000 protein kinase (PK) genes have been annotated in the Arabidopsis genome,(More)
The genetic system of chloroplasts, including the machinery for transcription, translation, and DNA replication, exhibits substantial similarity to that of eubacteria. Chloroplasts are also thought to possess a system for generating guanosine 5'-triphosphate ((p)ppGpp), which triggers the stringent response in eubacteria, with genes encoding chloroplastic(More)
AtSR1 is a protein kinase of Arabidopsis thaliana, which belongs to the SNF1-related protein kinase subfamily 3. We previously showed accumulation of its transcripts to be responsive to light. In this study, we examined the interaction between AtSR1 and six calcineurin B like proteins of Arabidopsis and found that AtSR1 prominently interacts with one of(More)
The use of the Protemist XE, an automated discontinuous-batch protein synthesis robot, in cell-free translation is reported. The soluble Galdieria sulphuraria protein DCN1 was obtained in greater than 2mg total synthesis yield per mL of reaction mixture from the Protemist XE, and the structure was subsequently solved by X-ray crystallography using material(More)
Activation of caspases is crucial for the execution of apoptosis. Although the caspase cascade associated with activation of the initiator caspase-8 (CASP8) has been investigated in molecular and biochemical detail, the physiological role of CASP8 is not fully understood. Here, we identified a two-pore domain potassium channel, tandem-pore domain(More)