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Insects can be grouped into mainly two categories, holometabolous and hemimetabolous, according to the extent of their morphological change during metamorphosis. The three thoracic legs, for example, are known to develop through two overtly different pathways: holometabolous insects make legs through their imaginal discs, while hemimetabolous legs develop(More)
Progesterone receptors (PRs) are known to exist in two forms: a larger molecular, form B, and a smaller one, form A. Rat PR cDNA corresponding to the region around the translation-initiation site (ATGB) of the putative PR form B mRNA was cloned, together with cloning of steroid-binding domain of the PR forms A and B. An imperfect "estrogen responsive(More)
The postnatal development of the progestin receptor (PR) system in the rat brain is a region-specific and stage-related process. In an attempt to analyze the molecular mechanism by which the dramatic change of gene expression of the PR occurs we have examined the level of PR mRNAs in the hypothalamus-preoptic area (HPOA) and cerebral cortex in development(More)
BACKGROUND Ubiquitination is mediated by the sequential action of at least three enzymes: the E1 (ubiquitin-activating enzyme), E2 (ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme) and E3 (ubiquitin ligase) proteins. Polyubiquitination of target proteins is also implicated in several critical cellular processes. Although Arabidopsis genome research has estimated more than(More)
BACKGROUND Recently, some groups have reported on cell-free synthesis of functional membrane proteins (MPs) in the presence of exogenous liposomes (liposomes). Previously, we reported synthesis of a functional AtPPT1 plant phosphate transporter that was associated with liposomes during translation. However, it is unclear whether or not lipid/MP complex(More)
Chloroplasts possess common biosynthetic pathways for generating guanosine 3′,5′-(bis)pyrophosphate (ppGpp) from GDP and ATP by RelA-SpoT homolog enzymes. To date, several hypothetical targets of ppGpp in chloroplasts have been suggested, but they remain largely unverified. In this study, we have investigated effects of ppGpp on translation apparatus in(More)
Entamoeba histolytica, a microaerophilic protozoan parasite, possesses mitosomes. Mitosomes are mitochondrion-related organelles that have largely lost typical mitochondrial functions, such as those involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. The biological roles of Entamoeba mitosomes have been a long-standing enigma. We(More)
Entamoeba possesses a highly divergent mitochondrion-related organelle known as the mitosome. Here, we report the discovery of a novel protein in Entamoeba, which we name Mitosomal β-barrel Outer Membrane Protein of 30 kDa (MBOMP30). Initially identified through in silico analysis, we experimentally confirmed that MBOMP30 is indeed a β-barrel protein.(More)
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