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The use of near-infrared or infrared photons is a promising approach for biomedical imaging in living tissue. This technology often requires exogenous contrast agents with combinations of hydrodynamic diameter, absorption, quantum yield and stability that are not possible with conventional organic fluorophores. Here we show that the fluorescence emission of(More)
Benzothiadiazole (BTH) is a so-called plant activator and protects plants from diseases by activating the salicylic acid (SA) signaling pathway. By microarray screening, we identified BTH- and SA-inducible WRKY transcription factor (TF) genes that were upregulated within 3 h after BTH treatment. Overexpression of one of them, WRKY45, in rice (Oryza sativa)(More)
NPR1 is a central regulator of salicylic-acid (SA)-mediated defense signaling in Arabidopsis. Here, we report the characterization of OsNPR1, an Oryzae sativa (rice) ortholog of NPR1, focusing on its role in blast disease resistance and identification of OsNPR1-regulated genes. Blast resistance tests using OsNPR1 knockdown and overexpressing rice lines(More)
Fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dots [QDs]) are hypothesized to be excellent contrast agents for biomedical assays and imaging. A unique property of QDs is that their absorbance increases with increasing separation between excitation and emission wavelengths. Much of the enthusiasm for using QDs in vivo stems from this property, since photon(More)
amyR2, amyE+, and aroI+ alleles from an alpha-amylase-hyperproducing strain, Bacillus subtilis NA64, were cloned in temperate B. subtilis phage p11, and the amyR2 and amyE+ genes were then recloned in plasmid pUB110, which was designated pTUB4. The order of the restriction sites, ClaI-EcoRI-PstI-SalI-SmaI, found in the DNA fragment carrying amyR2 and amyE+(More)
Brown adipose tissue (BAT; brown fat) is the principal site of adaptive thermogenesis in the human newborn and other small mammals. Of paramount importance for thermogenesis is vascular perfusion, which controls the flow of cool blood in, and warmed blood out, of BAT. We have developed an optical method for the quantitative imaging of BAT perfusion in the(More)
Panicle blast 1 (Pb1) is a panicle blast resistance gene derived from the indica rice cultivar "Modan." Pb1 encodes a coiled-coil-nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat (CC-NB-LRR) protein and confers durable, broad-spectrum resistance to Magnaporthe oryzae races. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying Pb1-mediated blast resistance.(More)
To clarify the role of gibberellins in the seed development of Arabidopsis, we investigated the sites where gibberellins are synthesized and induce alpha-amylase genes. The spatial and temporal expression of the genes encoding gibberellin biosynthetic enzymes and alpha-amylases was examined by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and in situ hybridization.(More)
On-the-fly excited-state quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics molecular dynamics (QM/MM-MD) simulations of thymine in aqueous solution are performed to investigate the role of solvent water molecules on the nonradiative deactivation process. The complete active space second-order perturbation theory (CASPT2) method is employed for a thymine molecule as the(More)
Forward–backward semiclassical dynamics ͑FBSD͒ methods are emerging as a practical way of simulating dynamical processes in large quantum systems. In this paper we develop a pair-product approximation to the coherent state density. This form is accurate at low temperatures, enhancing significantly the convergence of Monte Carlo methods and thus allowing the(More)