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Benzothiadiazole (BTH) is a so-called plant activator and protects plants from diseases by activating the salicylic acid (SA) signaling pathway. By microarray screening, we identified BTH- and SA-inducible WRKY transcription factor (TF) genes that were upregulated within 3 h after BTH treatment. Overexpression of one of them, WRKY45, in rice (Oryza sativa)(More)
Forward–backward semiclassical dynamics ͑FBSD͒ methods are emerging as a practical way of simulating dynamical processes in large quantum systems. In this paper we develop a pair-product approximation to the coherent state density. This form is accurate at low temperatures, enhancing significantly the convergence of Monte Carlo methods and thus allowing the(More)
The transcriptional activator WRKY45 plays a major role in the salicylic acid/benzothiadiazole-induced defense program in rice. Here, we show that the nuclear ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) plays a role in regulating the function of WRKY45. Proteasome inhibitors induced accumulation of polyubiquitinated WRKY45 and transient up-regulation of WRKY45 target(More)
We introduce an untethered interface that eliminates the annoyance of wires etc. by using air-jets to establish force feedback. Attendees experience interaction with a virtual object that responds to being "touched". The sense of touch is provided by air-jets while visual clues are provided by a projection-based stereo display.
The rice transcription factor WRKY45 plays a crucial role in salicylic acid (SA)/benzothiadiazole (BTH)-induced disease resistance. Its knockdown severely reduces BTH-induced resistance to the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae and the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). Conversely, overexpression of WRKY45 induces extremely strong(More)
Albumin (Alb) is mixture of reduced and oxidized forms. It is physiologically significant to determine Alb(red)%, which is the proportion of reduced Alb in the sum of Alb. However, reduced Alb in both blood and plasma samples is easily converted to oxidized Alb. Accordingly, the stabilization of Alb in samples is necessary to determine precise Alb(red)%(More)
Plant activators such as benzothiadiazole (BTH) protect plants against diseases by priming the salicylic acid (SA) signaling pathway. In rice, the transcription factor WRKY45 plays a central role in this process. To investigate the mechanism involved in defense-priming by BTH and the role of WRKY45 in this process, we analyzed the transcripts of(More)
A rigorous derivation of the macroscopic governing equations for convective flow in a nanofluid saturated metal foam has been conducted using the volume averaging theory originally developed for analyzing heat and fluid flow in porous media. The nanoparticle conservation equation at a pore scale based on the Buongiorno model has been integrated over a local(More)
Palau'amine has received a great deal of attention in the past two decades as an attractive synthetic target by virtue of its intriguing molecular architecture and significant immunosuppressive activity. Here we report the total synthesis of palau'amine characterized by the construction of an ABDE tetracyclic ring core including a trans-bicylo[3.3.0]octane(More)
We use the pair-product approximation to the complex-time quantum mechanical propagator to obtain accurate quantum mechanical results for the symmetrized velocity autocorrelation function of a Lennard-Jones fluid at two points on the thermodynamic phase diagram. A variety of tests are performed to determine the accuracy of the method and understand its(More)