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Neurons are highly polarized and comprised of two structurally and functionally distinct parts, an axon and dendrites. We previously showed that collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP-2) is critical for specifying axon/dendrite fate, possibly by promoting neurite elongation via microtubule assembly. Here, we showed that glycogen synthase kinase-3beta(More)
Endocytic proteins such as epsin, AP180, and Hip1R (Sla2p) share a conserved modular region termed the epsin NH2-terminal homology (ENTH) domain, which plays a crucial role in clathrin-mediated endocytosis through an unknown target. Here, we demonstrate a strong affinity of the ENTH domain for phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2]. With(More)
Dvl is a key protein that transmits the Wnt signal to the canonical beta-catenin pathway and the noncanonical planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway. We studied the roles of Rho-associated kinase (Rho-kinase), which is activated by Dvl in the PCP pathway of mammalian cells. The expression of Dvl-1, Wnt-1, or Wnt-3a activated Rho-kinase in COS cells, and this(More)
The protein Raf-1, a key mediator of mitogenesis and differentiation, associates with p21ras (refs 1-3). However, the regulation of the serine/threonine kinase activity of Raf-1 is still not understood. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we identified two structurally related proteins that interact with the aminoterminal region of Raf-1. These proteins,(More)
Wnts comprise a large family of secreted, hydrophobic glycoproteins that control a variety of developmental and adult processes in all metazoan organisms, including cellular proliferation, differentiation, migration and polarity. Wnts have many receptors that are present on a variety of cell types, partly specifying which Wnt pathways are activated.(More)
Exquisitely regulated cytokine balance during early pregnancy is thought to be necessary for promoting survival of the fetal allograft. Our previous studies have demonstrated that membrane-bound human leukocyte antigen (mHLA-G) expressed on trophoblasts is one of the key factors in regulating cytokine balance by shifting the Th1/Th2 balance toward Th2(More)
Wnt5a regulates multiple intracellular signalling cascades, but how Wnt5a determines the specificity of these pathways is not well understood. This study examined whether the internalization of Wnt receptors affects the ability of Wnt5a to regulate its signalling pathways. Wnt5a activated Rac in the beta-catenin-independent pathway, and Frizzled2 (Fz2) and(More)
Semaphorin3A (Sema3A) exerts a wide variety of biological functions by regulating reorganization of actin and tubulin cytoskeletal proteins through signaling pathways including sequential phosphorylation of collapsin response mediator protein 1 (CRMP1) and CRMP2 by cyclin-dependent kinase-5 and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β). To delineate how GSK3β(More)
One aspect of the function of the beta-arrestins is to serve as scaffold or adapter molecules coupling G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) to signal transduction pathways distinct from traditional second messenger pathways. Here we report the identification of Dishevelled 1 and Dishevelled 2 (Dvl1 and Dvl2) as beta-arrestin1 (betaarr1) interacting proteins.(More)