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The etiology of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) remains enigmatic. One theory that has attracted attention proposes that PBC is induced via molecular mimicry with Escherichia coli. If molecular mimicry is responsible for the immunogenic response in PBC, then T cell clones specific for E. coli antigens should stimulate and be cross-reactive with peptides(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Previous work has suggested that CD4+ CD28- or costimulation-independent T cells are increased in autoimmune diseases. In this study, we compared frequency and qualitative characteristics of autoreactive costimulation-independent or CD4+ CD28- T cells in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) by taking advantage of the well-defined immunodominant(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of a triple therapy in older Japanese patients; telaprevir (TVR) was added to pegylated interferon α2b and ribavirin. METHODS This prospective study enrolled 120 genotype 1b patients with chronic hepatitis C who received 12 weeks of triple therapy followed by a 12-week dual therapy that(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS The mechanism for development of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) remains enigmatic, but molecular mimicry has been implicated because of well-known cross-reactivity of human mitochondrial autoantigens and equivalent bacterial antigens. Virtually all patients with PBC have antimitochondrial autoantibodies (AMA), but, interestingly,(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Anemia is a common adverse effect of telaprevir (TVR) in combination with pegylated interferon (PegIFN)α and ribavirin (RBV) therapy. It occurs at a higher incidence with the TVR relative to PegIFNα and RBV alone. We herein evaluate the baseline and on-treatment predictors of the development of severe anemia by chronic hepatitis C virus(More)
We have investigated the inhibitory effect of trans-cinnamaldehyde (CA), one of the principal constituents of essential oil derived from Cinnamomi cortex, on the growth of influenza A/PR/8 virus in vitro and in vivo. When 1-h drug treatment was initiated at various times post-infection (p.i.) in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells using a fixed dose of CA (40(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIM The addition of hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/4A protease inhibitors to pegylated-interferon alpha (PEG-IFNα) and ribavirin (triple therapy) has greatly improved treatment outcome. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness and safety of simeprevir-based or telaprevir-based triple therapy for non-cirrhotic patients in real-world(More)
Older patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have historically been designated difficult-to-treat. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of sofosbuvir (nucleotide NS5B polymerase inhibitor) plus ribavirin for patients with HCV genotype 2 infection in a real-world clinical setting, with the focus on elderly patients aged ≥ 65. This large,(More)
Favourable efficacy and safety profiles for simeprevir in combination with pegylated interferon alpha (PEG-IFNα) and ribavirin (triple therapy) have been shown in clinical trials. This study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of simeprevir-based triple therapy for patients with prior telaprevir treatment failure. This multicentre, observational(More)
The biliary epithelial cell (BEC) is the target for several human immune mediated liver diseases, including primary biliary cirrhosis, but it is not always clear whether the BEC functions as an accessory cell or an antigen presenting cell, although it is well documented that BECs express high levels of human leukocyte antigen Class II, intercellular(More)