Akira Karasawa

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Adenosine is a purine nucleoside and modulates a variety of physiological functions by interacting with cell-surface adenosine receptors. Under several adverse conditions, including ischemia, trauma, stress, seizures and inflammation, extracellular levels of adenosine are increased due to increased energy demands and ATP metabolism. Increased adenosine(More)
The P2X7 receptor is a non-selective cation channel activated by extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Chronic activation of P2X7 underlies many health problems such as pathologic pain, yet we lack effective antagonists due to poorly understood mechanisms of inhibition. Here we present crystal structures of a mammalian P2X7 receptor complexed with(More)
A variant of Cucumber mosaic virus, CMV(Y/GM2), was isolated from a tobacco plant with mild green mosaic symptoms that was regenerated in vitro from a yellow strain of CMV [CMV(Y)]-infected tobacco leaves by tissue culture. CMV(Y/GM2) has two amino acid substitutions at 36 and 111 positions in the coat protein encoded on RNA3. CMV, assembled by mixing in(More)
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS Adenosine shows protective effects against cellular damage and dysfunction under several adverse conditions such as inflammation and ischemia. In the current study, we examined the effects of 3-[1-(6,7-diethoxy-2-morpholinoquinazolin-4-yl)piperidin-4-yl]-1,6-dimethyl-2,4(1,3 )-quinazolinedione hydrochloride (KF24345), an adenosine(More)
Adenosine protects against cellular damage and dysfunction under several adverse conditions including inflammation and ischemia. In this study, we examined the effects of 3-[1-(6,7-diethoxy-2-morpholinoquinazolin-4-yl)piperidin-4-yl]-1,6-dimethyl-2,4(1H,3H)-quinazolinedione hydrochloride (KF24345), an adenosine uptake inhibitor, on experimental acute(More)
Olopatadine hydrochloride (olopatadine) is an anti-allergic drug that functions as a histamine H(1) antagonist and inhibits both mast cell degranulation and the release of arachidonic acid metabolites in various types of cells. In this study, we examined the ability of olopatadine to inhibit the expression of cytokine genes in vitro via high-affinity(More)
Prostaglandin (PG) D2, a major cyclooxygenase metabolite generated from immunologically stimulated mast cells, is known to induce activation and chemotaxis in eosinophils, basophils, and T helper 2 (Th2) lymphocytes via a newly identified PGD2 receptor, chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells (CRTH2). CRTH2 is hypothesized to(More)
Olopatadine hydrochloride (CAS 140462-76-6, KW-4679, AL-4943A; hereinafter referred to as olopatadine) is a novel antiallergic drug that is a selective histamine H1 receptor antagonist possessing inhibitory effects on the release of inflammatory lipid mediators such as leukotriene and thromboxane from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes and eosinophils.(More)
Histamine H1 receptor antagonists have long been prescribed for atopic dermatitis as an adjuvant therapy with topical therapy by local applied steroids. Olopatadine is one of the second-generation histamine H1 receptor antagonists that are treated for allergic disorders. We investigated that the effect of olopatadine on oxazolone-induced chronic contact(More)
We previously demonstrated that cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] cultivar Kurodane-Sanjaku contains the Cry gene, which confers resistance against Cucumber mosaic cucumovirus infection. In this paper, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was carried out to tag the Cry locus. Bulked segregant analysis for RAPD resulted in many(More)