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Functional and structural abnormalities of the anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG) in patients with schizophrenia have been repeatedly reported. However, one remaining issue is whether gray matter volume reduction in ACG exists to an extent comparable with, or even in excess of, that in other prefrontal and temporolimbic regions. High-spatial-resolution magnetic(More)
To develop a noninvasive method for psychophysiological assessment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 34 victims of the Tokyo Subway Sarin Attack in 1995 including 8 diagnosed as PTSD and 12 controls were examined by a multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) system. Hemodynamic response in the prefrontal cortex was monitored during the(More)
In order to examine the effects of risperidone on cognitive impairment in schizophrenia, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded before and after switching from conventional neuroleptics to risperidone in schizophrenic patients. ERPs were recorded during two auditory discrimination tasks (an oddball task and a distraction task) in 10 medicated(More)
This paper reviews recent empirical findings related to prefrontal and executive function in unipolar depression. While a number of reviews have dealt with either the neuropsychological literature or findings from imaging studies, the present review addresses both, as well as findings from studies that have combined brain-imaging techniques with(More)
MRI studies using the manual tracing method have shown a smaller-than-normal hippocampal volume in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, these studies have yielded inconsistent results, and brain structures other than the hippocampus have not been well investigated. A recently developed, fully automated method called voxel-based(More)
OBJECTIVE This study aimed to identify persistent morphological changes subsequent to an acute single-time exposure to sarin, a highly poisonous organophosphate, and the neurobiological basis of long-lasting somatic and cognitive symptoms in victims exposed to sarin. METHODS Thirty-eight victims of the 1995 Tokyo subway sarin attack, all of whom had been(More)
Recent functional neuroimaging work has suggested that interregional functional connectivity between the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), other limbic, and prefrontal regions may be involved in the pathophysiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, less attention has been paid to the white matter network. Voxel-based analysis enables an(More)
OBJECTIVE We evaluated event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by attentional disengagement in individuals with autism. METHODS Sixteen adults with autism, 17 adults with mental retardation and 14 healthy adults participated in this study. We recorded the pre-saccade positive ERPs during the gap overlap task under which a peripheral stimulus was(More)
Several studies have suggested that there is frontal dysfunction in subjects with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We investigated the relationship between alterations of the hemodynamic response of the prefrontal cortex during a cognitive task (verbal fluency task; VFT) and memory function measured using the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R). The(More)
The structural abnormality of planum temporale (PT), a part of the superior temporal heteromodal association cortex involved in auditory and language processing, has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. However, its relationship to clinical manifestations remains unclear. Magnetic resonance images were obtained from 17 right-handed(More)