Akira Iwanami

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MRI studies using the manual tracing method have shown a smaller-than-normal hippocampal volume in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, these studies have yielded inconsistent results, and brain structures other than the hippocampus have not been well investigated. A recently developed, fully automated method called voxel-based(More)
This paper reviews recent empirical findings related to prefrontal and executive function in unipolar depression. While a number of reviews have dealt with either the neuropsychological literature or findings from imaging studies, the present review addresses both, as well as findings from studies that have combined brain-imaging techniques with(More)
OBJECTIVE This study aimed to identify persistent morphological changes subsequent to an acute single-time exposure to sarin, a highly poisonous organophosphate, and the neurobiological basis of long-lasting somatic and cognitive symptoms in victims exposed to sarin. METHODS Thirty-eight victims of the 1995 Tokyo subway sarin attack, all of whom had been(More)
Recent functional neuroimaging work has suggested that interregional functional connectivity between the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), other limbic, and prefrontal regions may be involved in the pathophysiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, less attention has been paid to the white matter network. Voxel-based analysis enables an(More)
Although post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be seen to represent a failure to extinguish learned fear, significant aspects of the pathophysiology relevant to this hypothesis remain unknown. Both the amygdala and hippocampus are necessary for fear extinction occur, and thus both regions may be abnormal in PTSD. Twenty-five people who experienced the(More)
Functional and structural abnormalities of the anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG) in patients with schizophrenia have been repeatedly reported. However, one remaining issue is whether gray matter volume reduction in ACG exists to an extent comparable with, or even in excess of, that in other prefrontal and temporolimbic regions. High-spatial-resolution magnetic(More)
Neurobiological mechanisms for social skills acquisition in schizophrenia remain largely unknown. We investigated whether an electrophysiological index of cognitive function predicts the degree of training-related social skills improvement in schizophrenia. Thirteen patients with schizophrenia underwent assessment of mismatch negativity (MMN) event-related(More)
To reveal the spatiotemporal characteristics of the auditory automatic discrimination process, mismatch negativity (MMN) generators were assessed with a high-resolution EEG system (128ch) and scalp current density (SCD) analysis. Ten normal volunteers participated in the study. Event-related potentials were recorded during a selective attention task.(More)
OBJECTIVE Schizophrenia is associated with language-related dysfunction. At the most basic level, the dysfunction of schizophrenic patients in perceiving phoneme boundaries has been demonstrated in a behavioral task. The goal in this study was to obtain an electrophysiological index of preattentive detection of change in speech sounds by schizophrenic(More)
Schizophrenic and normal control subjects were examined using both H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and structural MR imaging, in order to accurately assess the partial volume within the spectroscopic volume of interest (VOI) in the anterior cingulate cortex. The gray matter volume within VOI correlated positively with the N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) to(More)