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Functional and structural abnormalities of the anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG) in patients with schizophrenia have been repeatedly reported. However, one remaining issue is whether gray matter volume reduction in ACG exists to an extent comparable with, or even in excess of, that in other prefrontal and temporolimbic regions. High-spatial-resolution magnetic(More)
OBJECTIVE This study aimed to identify persistent morphological changes subsequent to an acute single-time exposure to sarin, a highly poisonous organophosphate, and the neurobiological basis of long-lasting somatic and cognitive symptoms in victims exposed to sarin. METHODS Thirty-eight victims of the 1995 Tokyo subway sarin attack, all of whom had been(More)
To develop a noninvasive method for psychophysiological assessment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 34 victims of the Tokyo Subway Sarin Attack in 1995 including 8 diagnosed as PTSD and 12 controls were examined by a multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) system. Hemodynamic response in the prefrontal cortex was monitored during the(More)
Schizophrenic and normal control subjects were examined using both H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and structural MR imaging, in order to accurately assess the partial volume within the spectroscopic volume of interest (VOI) in the anterior cingulate cortex. The gray matter volume within VOI correlated positively with the N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) to(More)
This paper reviews recent empirical findings related to prefrontal and executive function in unipolar depression. While a number of reviews have dealt with either the neuropsychological literature or findings from imaging studies, the present review addresses both, as well as findings from studies that have combined brain-imaging techniques with(More)
MRI studies using the manual tracing method have shown a smaller-than-normal hippocampal volume in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, these studies have yielded inconsistent results, and brain structures other than the hippocampus have not been well investigated. A recently developed, fully automated method called voxel-based(More)
To reveal the spatiotemporal characteristics of the auditory automatic discrimination process, mismatch negativity (MMN) generators were assessed with a high-resolution EEG system (128ch) and scalp current density (SCD) analysis. Ten normal volunteers participated in the study. Event-related potentials were recorded during a selective attention task.(More)
In order to examine the effects of risperidone on cognitive impairment in schizophrenia, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded before and after switching from conventional neuroleptics to risperidone in schizophrenic patients. ERPs were recorded during two auditory discrimination tasks (an oddball task and a distraction task) in 10 medicated(More)
OBJECTIVE Schizophrenia is associated with language-related dysfunction. At the most basic level, the dysfunction of schizophrenic patients in perceiving phoneme boundaries has been demonstrated in a behavioral task. The goal in this study was to obtain an electrophysiological index of preattentive detection of change in speech sounds by schizophrenic(More)
OBJECTIVE Many studies have demonstrated mismatch negativity (MMN) attenuation in schizophrenia. Recently, investigators have shown that GABAergic inhibitory neurons may regulate MMN generation. Considering that a substantial proportion of schizophrenic patients receive anxiolytics and hypnotics that have affinity to GABA(A) receptors to reduce their(More)