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The higher plant Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) is an important model for identifying plant genes and determining their function. To assist biological investigations and to define chromosome structure, a coordinated effort to sequence the Arabidopsis genome was initiated in late 1996. Here we report one of the first milestones of this project, the(More)
Regulated transcription controls the diversity, developmental pathways and spatial organization of the hundreds of cell types that make up a mammal. Using single-molecule cDNA sequencing, we mapped transcription start sites (TSSs) and their usage in human and mouse primary cells, cell lines and tissues to produce a comprehensive overview of mammalian gene(More)
Some wild African green monkeys are known to be naturally infected with a retrovirus related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) without having any apparent symptoms of an AIDS-like disease. This simian immunodeficiency virus, designated SIVAGM, may be helpful in clarifying the evolution and pathogenicity of HIV. Some virus strains that were previously(More)
Although it is generally accepted that cellular differentiation requires changes to transcriptional networks, dynamic regulation of promoters and enhancers at specific sets of genes has not been previously studied en masse. Exploiting the fact that active promoters and enhancers are transcribed, we simultaneously measured their activity in 19 human and 14(More)
The authors have developed a neural-digital computer-aided diagnosis system, based on a parameterized two-level convolution neural network (CNN) architecture and on a special multilabel output encoding procedure. The developed architecture was trained, tested, and evaluated specifically on the problem of diagnosis of lung cancer nodules found on digitized(More)
BACKGROUND Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been reported to relieve pain, free of side effects. However, the mechanisms underlying LLLT are not well understood. Recent studies have also demonstrated that opioid-containing immune cells migrate to inflamed sites and release beta-endorphins to inhibit pain as a mode of peripheral endogenous opioid(More)
Since the isolation of an HIV-2-related virus from captive macaques (SIVMAC), the origin of human immunodeficiency viruses, a much debated subject, has been attributed to monkeys. The sequence of SIVAGM, which is derived from a naturally infected African green monkey, shows equal relatedness to HIV-1 and HIV-2, suggesting that the derivation of these(More)
In recent years, many computer-aided diagnosis schemes have been proposed to assist radiologists in detecting lung nodules. The research efforts have been aimed at increasing the sensitivity while decreasing the false-positive detections on digital chest radiographs. Among the problems of reducing the number of false positives, the differentiation between(More)
Accommodation and convergence were measured simultaneously while subjects viewed 2D and 3D images. The aim was to compare fixation distances between accommodation and convergence in young subjects while they viewed 2D and 3D images. Measurements were made using an original machine that combined WAM-5500 and EMR-9, and 2D and 3D images were presented using a(More)