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We propose merged single-electron and MOS devices that serve as basic components of multiple-valued logic, such as a universal literal gate and a quantizer. We verified their operation by using single-electron transistors and MOSFETs fabricated on the same wafer by pattern-dependent oxidation process. We also discuss their application to an(More)
STUDY DESIGN A biomechanical and imaging study of human cadaveric spinal motion segments. OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of both disc degeneration and facet joint osteoarthritis on lumbar segmental motion. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA Spinal degeneration includes the osteoarthritic changes of the facet joint as well as disc degeneration. Disc(More)
The single-electron device (SED) is drawing a lot of attention for future large-scale integration because of its low-power nature and small size. We have developed a novel method called pattern-dependent oxidation (PADOX) for fabricating small Si single-electron transistors (SETs) and used it to make many kinds of SEDs. One of the most primitive and(More)
Degenerative processes in the disc and facet joints affect the stability of the motion segment. The exact relations among disc degeneration, facet joint osteoarthritis, and the kinematics of the motion segment are not well defined in the literature. Magnetic resonance imaging and functional radiography of the lumbar spine were analyzed to examine the(More)
We have developed two novel methods of fabricating very small Si single-electron transistors (SETs), called PAttern-Dependent OXidation (PADOX) and Vertical PAttern-Dependent OXidation (V-PADOX). These methods exploit special phenomena that occur when small Si structures on SiO 2 are thermally oxidized. Since the size of the resultant Si island of the SET(More)
We report here a new type of "single-electron" memory that works as a multiple-valued SRAM. A schematic of the proposed memory is shown in Fig. 1. The source of a MOSFET with fixed gate bias V gg is connected to the drain of a single-electron transistor (SET), and the SET drain voltage is kept nearly constant around V gg-V th , where V th is the threshold(More)
STUDY DESIGN Flexibility tests and finite element analyses were performed for the biomechanical evaluation of diagonal transfixation in pedicle screw instrumentation. OBJECTIVE To assess the biomechanical advantages of diagonal transfixation compared with conventional horizontal transfixation. SUMMARY AND BACKGROUND DATA A few pedicle screw(More)
Manipulation of single electrons is the key to developing ultimate electronics such as single-electron-based information processors and electrical standards in metrology. Especially, high-frequency and high-accuracy single-electron pumps are essential to realize practical current standards. While electrically defined quantum dots are widely used to build(More)
SUMMARY A single-electron turnstile and electrometer circuit was fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator substrate. The turnstile, which is operated by opening and closing two metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) alternately, allows current quantization at 20 K due to single-electron transfer. Another MOSFET is placed at the drain side(More)
Information is lacking in the literature on the precise anatomy of the iliolumbar ligament and its individual differences. The morphologic pattern, length, and width of the iliolumbar ligament were determined in 56 embalmed lumbosacral spines from human cadavers. It was possible to classify the iliolumbar ligament into two groups: Type A (74 ligaments), in(More)