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Visual information received from the three types of photoreceptor neurons (R1-R6, R7 and R8) in the fly compound eyes converges to the external part of the medulla neuropil (M1-M6 layers) in a layer-specific fashion: R7 and R8 axons terminate at the M6 and M3 layers, respectively, whereas lamina neurons (L1-L5) relay R1-R6 to multiple medulla layers(More)
Midline glia are a source of cues for neuronal navigation and differentiation in the Drosophila CNS. Despite their importance, how glia and neurons communicate during the development is not fully understood. Here, we examined dynamic morphology of midline glia and assessed their direct cellular interactions with neurons within the embryonic CNS. Midline(More)
Magnetic bearings have been applied to high speed and high power electric machines for machine tools, turbomolecular pumps, etc. Bearingless motors can be expected to realize high speed and high power ratings because magnetic bearing functions are integrated into high-speed motors, which results in a simplified structure with short shaft length. In this(More)
Neuronal connectivity is established by the axo-dendritic polarity, correct guidance and targeting of neurons. Unlike for axons, the mechanisms responsible for directed outgrowth of dendrites are not well understood. Using single-cell labeling, we describe specific guidance defects in dendrites of identified neurons in frazzled, robo, netrin and(More)
Like axons, dendrites need guidance for proper orientation and positioning within the brain. Guidance determines synaptic connectivity as well as the strength of transmission. Recent in vivo studies have demonstrated that several cell-surface receptors, previously known as axon guidance molecules, are also responsible for the directed outgrowth of(More)
BACKGROUND Comparative studies of ultrastructural features of tongues allow deductions to be made about relationships between structure and function, as reflected by an animal's feeding habits. The present study was performed to serve as a basis for further studies of avian feeding mechanisms and of relationships between the fine structure of the lingual(More)
Previous studies showed immunoreactivities for neuropeptide Y (NPY), molluscan cardioexcitatory tetrapeptide (FMRFamide), and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in the terminal nerve of elasmobranchs. The present immunohistochemical study demonstrated two types of cells, i.e. GnRH- and NPY/FMRFamide-positive cells, in the terminal nerve ganglion of the(More)
A spinning disk confocal attachment is added to a full-field real-time frequency-domain fluorescence lifetime-resolved imaging microscope (FLIM). This provides confocal 3-D imaging while retaining all the characteristics of the normal 2-D FLIM. The spinning disk arrangement allows us to retain the speed of the normal 2-D full field FLIM while gaining true(More)
A machine design of a switched reluctance motor having competitive torque and efficiency as well as compactness with respect to an interior permanent-magnet (IPM) synchronous motor (IPMSM) in a hybrid electric vehicle (Toyota Prius 2003) has been investigated. A torque of 400 N·m is set as a target with an outer diameter of 269 mm with an axial(More)
A switched reluctance motor (SRM) has been developed as one of the possible candidates of rare-earth-free electric motors. A prototype machine has been built and tested. It has competitive dimensions, torque, power, and efficiency with respect to the 50-kW interior permanent magnet synchronous motor employed in the hybrid electric vehicles (Toyota Prius(More)