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The flight behavior of two kinds of seeds dispersed by wind, pappose seeds and winged seeds is observed and the aero- and flight-dynamics of these seeds are analysed. There are four flight modes: parachuting flight by pappi and gliding, rocking and spinning (or auto-rotational) flights utilizing a wing or wings. A bundle of pappi is applied to small seeds(More)
A simple computing method based on a potential theory is developed for two-dimensional steady and unsteady deflected wings. This method of theoretical analysis is essentially related to thin and angular airfoils. Thus, the method is very simple but is effective to forecast aerodynamic forces for deflected or angular airfoils with a small camber operating in(More)
Equations describing the motion of the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum, which has both a longitudinal and a transverse flagellum, were formulated and examined using numerical calculations based on hydrodynamic resistive force theory. The calculations revealed that each flagellum has its own function in cell locomotion. The transverse flagellum works as(More)
Acoustooptic Bragg deflectors (ABDs) with high diffraction efficiencies were fabricated using ZnO thin films deposited on sapphire, glass, and Si substrates by an RF magnetron sputtering system. Optical waveguide losses of the ZnO films were about 0.5 dBcm(-1). Diffraction efficiencies of 95 and 98% for the TE(0) mode beam (at 632.8 nm) were accomplished by(More)
A series of experiments on three-dimensional ‘near fling’ was carried out. Two pairs of plates, rectangular and triangular, were selected, and the distance between the rotation axes of the two plates of each pair was varied. The motion of the plates as well as the forces and the moment were measured, and the interference between the two plates of a pair was(More)
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