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BACKGROUND We investigated age-related differences in the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane and sevoflurane for maintaining bispectral index (BIS) below 50 (MAC(BIS50)). METHODS One hundred and twenty young (<or=40 yr), middle-aged (41-69 yr), and elderly (>or=70 yr) patients were randomly allocated to one of the six groups. Anaesthesia(More)
AIMS The objective of this study was to elucidate the interaction between intrathecally administered gabapentin and clonidine on neuropathic pain associated with allodynia in the spinal nerve ligation model in the rat. MAIN METHODS Thresholds for hind paw responses to mechanical stimuli were determined by delivering von Frey filaments to the plantar(More)
BACKGROUND Microglial cells play important roles in coordinating the inflammatory brain responses to hypoxia and trauma. Ionotropic P2X receptors and metabotropic P2Y receptors (P2YRs) expressed in microglia can be activated by extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) derived from damaged cells or astrocytes, and participate in the signaling pathways(More)
α2-Adrenoceptors are widely distributed throughout the central nervous system (CNS) and the systemic administration of α2-agonists such as dexmedetomidine produces clinically useful, centrally mediated sedation and analgesia; however, these same actions also limit the utility of these agents (ie, unwanted sedative actions). Despite a wealth of data on(More)
A 36-year-old man with intractable epileptic seizures underwent insertion of subdural electrodes on bilateral temporal lobes under air-oxygen-sevoflurane anesthesia. After the completion of the operation, we measured electrocorticogram at end-tidal sevoflurane concentration of 2.5%, 1.5%, and 1.5% with 0.1 mg intravenous fentanyl. When sevoflurane(More)
We determined the contribution of cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms to the metabolism of midazolam by kinetic analysis of human liver microsomes and CYP isoforms and by examining the effect of chemical inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies against CYP isoforms in vitro. Midazolam was metabolized to 1'-hydroxymidazolam (1'-OH MDZ) by human liver microsomes with(More)
An endocrine disruptor chemical, bisphenol-A (BPA), is reported to have several short-term actions in various tissues and/or cells; however, the mechanisms of these actions have not been fully elucidated. We investigated short-term actions evoked by BPA in pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. BPA elicited dopamine release in PC12 cells in a dose-dependent manner. A(More)
Fentanyl decreases clearance of midazolam administered i.v., but the mechanism remains unclear. To elucidate this mechanism, we have investigated the effect of fentanyl on metabolism of midazolam using human hepatic microsomes and recombinant cytochrome P450 isoforms (n = 6). Midazolam was metabolized to l'-hydroxymidazolam (l'-OH MDZ) by human hepatic(More)
BACKGROUND We have compared the pharmacokinetics and brain distribution of lidocaine, racemic bupivacaine (bupivacaine), and levobupivacaine in awake, spontaneously breathing rats. METHODS Lidocaine (0.5 mg x kg x min), bupivacaine (0.1 mg x kg x min), or levobupivacaine (0.1 mg x kg x min) was continuously administered to rats for 2 h (n = 12, each(More)