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The moment magnitude (M(w)) = 9.0 2011 Tohoku-Oki mega-thrust earthquake occurred off the coast of northeastern Japan. Combining Global Positioning System (GPS) and acoustic data, we detected very large sea-floor movements associated with this event directly above the focal region. An area with more than 20 meters of horizontal displacement, that is, four(More)
Indian Ocean hydrothermal vents are believed to represent a novel biogeographic province, and are host to many novel genera and families of animals, potentially indigenous to Indian Ocean hydrothermal systems. In particular, since its discovery in 2001, much attention has been paid to a so-called 'scaly-foot' gastropod because of its unique(More)
AIMS The objective of this study was to elucidate the interaction between intrathecally administered gabapentin and clonidine on neuropathic pain associated with allodynia in the spinal nerve ligation model in the rat. MAIN METHODS Thresholds for hind paw responses to mechanical stimuli were determined by delivering von Frey filaments to the plantar(More)
BACKGROUND Microglial cells play important roles in coordinating the inflammatory brain responses to hypoxia and trauma. Ionotropic P2X receptors and metabotropic P2Y receptors (P2YRs) expressed in microglia can be activated by extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) derived from damaged cells or astrocytes, and participate in the signaling pathways(More)
α2-Adrenoceptors are widely distributed throughout the central nervous system (CNS) and the systemic administration of α2-agonists such as dexmedetomidine produces clinically useful, centrally mediated sedation and analgesia; however, these same actions also limit the utility of these agents (ie, unwanted sedative actions). Despite a wealth of data on(More)
A 36-year-old man with intractable epileptic seizures underwent insertion of subdural electrodes on bilateral temporal lobes under air-oxygen-sevoflurane anesthesia. After the completion of the operation, we measured electrocorticogram at end-tidal sevoflurane concentration of 2.5%, 1.5%, and 1.5% with 0.1 mg intravenous fentanyl. When sevoflurane(More)
An endocrine disruptor chemical, bisphenol-A (BPA), is reported to have several short-term actions in various tissues and/or cells; however, the mechanisms of these actions have not been fully elucidated. We investigated short-term actions evoked by BPA in pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. BPA elicited dopamine release in PC12 cells in a dose-dependent manner. A(More)
Interplate megathrust earthquakes have inflicted catastrophic damage on human society. Such an earthquake is predicted to occur in the near future along the Nankai Trough off southwestern Japan--an economically active and densely populated area in which megathrust earthquakes have already occurred. Megathrust earthquakes are the result of a plate-subduction(More)
Here we report on an advanced survey system that combines multibeam echo sounding with underwater photography, which was used to collect accurate data on the distribution and abundance of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in Lake Towada. The use of this system enabled us to visualize the cover, height, and biomass of the SAV over the lake bottom, as well(More)