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To identify candidate genes involved in the aggressive behavior of worker honeybees, we used the differential display method to search for RNAs exclusively detected in the brains of aggressive workers that had attacked a hornet. We identified a novel, 10,152-nucleotide RNA, termed Kakugo RNA. Kakugo RNA encodes a protein of 2,893 amino acid residues that(More)
The poliovirus (PV)-induced cytopathic effect (CPE) was blocked in neural cells but not in HeLa cells by the addition of monoclonal antibody (MAb) against PV or the human PV receptor (CD155) 2 h postinfection (hpi). Since each MAb has the ability to block viral infection, no CPE in PV-infected neural cells appeared to result from the blockade of multiple(More)
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) UL141 induces protection against natural killer cell-mediated cytolysis by downregulating cell surface expression of CD155 (nectin-like molecule 5; poliovirus receptor), a ligand for the activating receptor DNAM-1 (CD226). However, DNAM-1 is also recognized to bind a second ligand, CD112 (nectin-2). We now show that HCMV targets(More)
Poliovirus (PV), when injected intramuscularly into the calf, is incorporated into the sciatic nerve and causes an initial paralysis of the inoculated limb in transgenic mice carrying the human PV receptor (hPVR/CD155) gene. Here, we demonstrated by using an immunoelectron microscope that PV particles exist on vesicle structures in nerve terminals of(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a positive-strand RNA virus that frequently causes persistent infections and is uniquely associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. While the mechanism(s) by which the virus promotes cancer are poorly defined, previous studies indicate that the HCV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, nonstructural protein 5B (NS5B),(More)
We previously identified a novel insect picorna-like virus, termed Kakugo virus (KV), from the brains of aggressive worker honeybees that had counterattacked a giant hornet. To survey the prevalence of KV in worker populations engaged in various labors, we quantified KV genomic RNA. KV was detected specifically from aggressive workers in some colonies,(More)
Poliovirus (PV) is easily transferred to humans orally; however, no rodent model for oral infections has been developed because of the alimentary tract's low sensitivity to the virus. Here we showed that PV is inactivated by the low pH of the gastric contents in mice. The addition of 3% NaHCO3 to the viral inoculum increased the titer of virus reaching the(More)
Death receptors (DRs) of the TNFR superfamily contribute to antiviral immunity by promoting apoptosis and regulating immune homeostasis during infection, and viral inhibition of DR signaling can alter immune defenses. Here we identify the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) UL141 glycoprotein as necessary and sufficient to restrict TRAIL DR function. Despite(More)
Poliovirus (PV), when injected intramuscularly into the calf, is incorporated into the sciatic nerve and causes an initial paralysis of the inoculated limb in transgenic (Tg) mice carrying the human PV receptor (hPVR/CD155) gene. We have previously demonstrated that a fast retrograde axonal transport process is required for PV dissemination through the(More)
Nucleotides (nt) 108 to 742 of an infectious cDNA clone of poliovirus (PV) Mahoney strain, including the corresponding region of the internal ribosome entry site (IRES), was replaced by nt 28 to 710 of hepatitis C virus (HCV) cDNA corresponding to the whole HCV IRES. A chimeric PV (2A-369) was generated by transfecting mammalian cells with an RNA(More)