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Evidence is presented that a small protein (VPg) is covalently attached to the 5'-terminal oligonucleotide VPg-pU-U-A-A-A-A-C-A-Gp of the polio genome, to nascent strands of the polio replicative intermediate and to poly(U) of minus strands. A model of polio RNA replication is proposed implicating VPg in initiation of RNA symthesis, possibly as primer.
We have isolated a novel actin filament-binding protein, named afadin, localized at cadherin-based cell-cell adherens junctions (AJs) in various tissues and cell lines. Afadin has one PDZ domain, three proline-rich regions, and one actin filament-binding domain. We found here that afadin directly interacted with a family of the immunoglobulin superfamily,(More)
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) UL141 induces protection against natural killer cell-mediated cytolysis by downregulating cell surface expression of CD155 (nectin-like molecule 5; poliovirus receptor), a ligand for the activating receptor DNAM-1 (CD226). However, DNAM-1 is also recognized to bind a second ligand, CD112 (nectin-2). We now show that HCMV targets(More)
Poliovirus (PV), when injected intramuscularly into the calf, is incorporated into the sciatic nerve and causes an initial paralysis of the inoculated limb in transgenic mice carrying the human PV receptor (hPVR/CD155) gene. Here, we demonstrated by using an immunoelectron microscope that PV particles exist on vesicle structures in nerve terminals of(More)
This study investigates the relationship between the high density lipoprotein (HDL) receptor (scavenger receptors, SR-BI and SR-BII), selective lipoprotein-cholesteryl ester uptake, and testosterone production in Leydig cells of control, hypocholesterolemic and gonadotrophic hormone (hCG) treated rats. Leydig cells from mature control rats show poor(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a positive-strand RNA virus that frequently causes persistent infections and is uniquely associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. While the mechanism(s) by which the virus promotes cancer are poorly defined, previous studies indicate that the HCV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, nonstructural protein 5B (NS5B),(More)
This study addresses the question of whether the level of expression of SR-BI (an HDL receptor) is linked to the expression of selective lipoprotein-cholesteryl ester delivery in a steroidogenic cell model. Rat ovarian granulosa cells are physiologically normal cells which show no selective uptake of HDL-cholesteryl esters and no progestin production until(More)
Death receptors (DRs) of the TNFR superfamily contribute to antiviral immunity by promoting apoptosis and regulating immune homeostasis during infection, and viral inhibition of DR signaling can alter immune defenses. Here we identify the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) UL141 glycoprotein as necessary and sufficient to restrict TRAIL DR function. Despite(More)
Poliovirus (PV), when injected intramuscularly into the calf, is incorporated into the sciatic nerve and causes an initial paralysis of the inoculated limb in transgenic (Tg) mice carrying the human PV receptor (hPVR/CD155) gene. We have previously demonstrated that a fast retrograde axonal transport process is required for PV dissemination through the(More)
Mutations have been identified in variants of poliovirus, type 1 (Mahoney) on the basis of their resistance to neutralization by individual monoclonal antibodies. The phenotypes of these variants were defined in terms of antibody binding; the pattern of epitopes expressed or able to be exploited for neutralization were complex. Single amino acid changes can(More)