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Rodents use their vibrissae (whiskers) to sense and navigate the environment. A main target of this sensory information is the superior colliculus in the midbrain, which rats can use to detect meaningful whisker stimuli in behavioral contexts. Here, we used field potential, single-unit, and intracellular recordings to show that, although cells in the(More)
BACKGROUND We and others have reported that transient accumulation of cyclic AMP (cAMP) in the myocardium during ischemic preconditioning (IP) limits infarct size independent of protein kinase C (PKC). Accumulation of cAMP activates protein kinase A (PKA), which has been demonstrated to cause reversible inhibition of RhoA and Rho-kinase. We investigated the(More)
Thalamocortical cells receive sensory signals via primary sensory afferents and cortical signals via corticothalamic afferents. These signals are influenced by a variety of neuromodulators that are released in the thalamus during specific behavioral states. Hence, different neuromodulators may set different thalamic modes of sensory information processing.(More)
Neocortex network activity varies from a desynchronized or activated state typical of arousal to a synchronized or deactivated state typical of quiescence. Such changes are usually attributed to the effects of neuromodulators released in the neocortex by nonspecific activating systems originating in basal forebrain and brain stem reticular formation. As a(More)
In the barrel cortex of rodents, cells respond to a principal whisker (PW) and more weakly to several adjacent whiskers (AWs). Here we show that compared with PW responses, simultaneous wide-field stimulation of the PW and several AWs enhances short-latency responses and suppresses long-latency responses. Multiwhisker enhancement and suppression is first(More)
| We present formula of propagation delay for static CMOS logic gates considering short-circuit current and current owing through gate capacitance and using the n-th power law MOSFET model which considers velocity saturation eects. The short circuit current is represented by a piece-wise linear function, which enables detailed analysis of the transient(More)
We present a gate delay model of CMOS logic gates driving a CRC load for deep sub-micron technology. Our approach is to replace series-parallel connected MOSFETs to an equivalent MOSFET and calculate the output waveform by an analytically derived formula. We present a MOSFET drain current model improved from the-th power law MOSFET model to represent the(More)
As MOSFET sizes and wire widths become very small in recent years, influence of resistive component of interconnects on the estimation of propagation delay and power dissipation can no longer be neglected. In this paper we present a short-circuit power dissipation formula for static CMOS logic gates driving a CRC load. By representing the short-circuit(More)
Thalamocortical synapses may be able to undergo activity-dependent long-term changes in efficacy, such as long-term potentiation. Indeed, studies conducted in vivo have found that theta-burst stimulation (TBS) of the thalamus induces a long-term enhancement (LTE) of field potential responses evoked in the neocortex of adult rodents. Because the thalamus and(More)
BACKGROUND Although statins are reported to have a cardioprotective effect, their immediate direct influence on ischemia-reperfusion injury and the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. We investigated these issues an in vivo canine model. METHODS AND RESULTS Dogs were subjected to coronary occlusion (90 minutes) and reperfusion (6 hours) immediately(More)