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In this paper we introduce a restricted model of context-free tree grammars called spine grammars, and study their formal properties including considerably simple normal forms. Recent research on natural languages has suggested that formalisms for natural languages need to generate a slightly larger class of languages than context-free grammars, and for(More)
In this paper, we introduce tactile graphics production software for three-dimensional projections. A blind person can use this software without assistance from the sighted and produce tactile graphics of three-dimensional projections. With this software, we want to study the limitation of tactile recognition of projections and improve the guidelines of(More)
This study focuses on the class of string languages generated by TAGs. It examines whether the class of string languages can be generated by some epsilon-free grammars and by some lexicalized grammars. Utilizing spine grammars, this problem is solved positively. This result for spine grammars can be translated into the result for TAGs.
Synchronized CUI and GUI are developed for the universal design tactile graphics production system BPLOT3. BPLOT is the first tactile graphics production system for the blind that enables the blind to produce tactile graphics by themselves. With the new synchronized CUI and GUI of BPLOT3, the blind and the sighted can collaboratively produce tactile(More)
This paper proposes a syntactic method for detection and correction of misrecognized mathematical formulae for a practical mathematical OCR system. Linear monadic context-free tree grammar (LM-CFTG) is employed as a formal framework to define syntactically acceptable mathematical formulae. For the purpose of practical evaluation, a verification system is(More)
This paper proposes the use of a formal grammar for the verification of mathematical formulae for a practical mathematical OCR system. Like a C compiler detecting syntax errors in a source file, we want to have a verification mechanism to find errors in the output of mathematical OCR. Linear monadic context-free tree grammar (LM-CFTG) was employed as a(More)