Akio Arakawa

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­z ­t 5 J(z, c), (2) The integral constraints on quadratic quantities of physical importance, such as conservation of mean kinetic energy and mean square vorticity, will not be maintained in finite difference analogues of or the equation of motion for two-dimensional incompressible flow, unless the finite difference Jacobian expression for the advection(More)
NOVEMBER 2003 AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY | C LOUDS AND CLIMATE: A PROBLEM THAT REFUSES TO DIE. Clouds of many varieties fill the global atmosphere (Fig. 1). They are composed of drops and crystals with scales on the order of microns to millimeters. They are associated with convection and turbulence on scales of meters to kilometers. They are organized(More)
Preliminary tests of the multiscale modeling approach, also known as the cloud-resolving convective parameterization, or superparameterization, are performed using an idealized framework. In this approach, a two-dimensional cloud-system resolving model (CSRM) is embedded within each vertical column of a general circulation model (GCM) replacing conventional(More)
BACKGROUND In new drug development in neuropathic pain (NeP), randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials (PCTs) with long treatment durations in a parallel-group design are recommended for confirmatory trials. OBJECTIVE This study was conducted to identify potential factors contributing to elevated placebo response in parallel-group PCTs for oral(More)
Two well-studied conditions of peripheral neuropathic pain are postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) and painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Several pregabalin trials for peripheral neuropathic pain have been conducted in the West, but limited data are available for Japan. As ethnicity may influence health risks, differences may be evident in safety data(More)
UNLABELLED Aims/Introduction:  Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is often associated with pain, and thus a new treatment option is anticipated. We recently showed the efficacy of pregabalin in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 14-week trial in Japanese patients with painful DPN. In the present study, we evaluated the long-term efficacy and(More)
The goal of this paper is to gain insight into the resolution dependence of model physics, the parameterization of moist convection in particular, which is required for accurately predicting large-scale features of the atmosphere. To achieve this goal, experiments using a two-dimensional nonhydrostatic model with different resolutions are conducted under(More)
BACKGROUND The efficacy of pregabalin was demonstrated in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled 13-week trial in 371 Japanese patients with postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). In this study, we evaluated the long-term efficacy and safety of pregabalin for relief of PHN. METHODS 126 patients were enrolled from the preceding double-blind study into the(More)
The simplifications required to apply the Boussinesq approximation to compressible flow are compared with those in an incompressible fluid. The larger degree of approximation required to describe mass conservation in a stratified compressible fluid with the Boussinesq continuity equation has led to the development of several different sets of “anelastic”(More)