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- Akio Arakawa
- 1997

The integral constraints on quadratic quantities of physical importance , such as conservation of mean kinetic energy and mean square vorticity, will not be maintained in finite difference analogues of or the equation of motion for two-dimensional incompressible flow, unless the finite difference Jacobian expression for the advection term is restricted to a… (More)

- AKIO ARAKAWA
- 2003

| C LOUDS AND CLIMATE: A PROBLEM THAT REFUSES TO DIE. Clouds of many varieties fill the global atmosphere (Fig. 1). They are composed of drops and crystals with scales on the order of microns to millimeters. They are associated with convection and turbulence on scales of meters to kilometers. They are organized within mesoscale and synoptic-scale dynamical… (More)

- AKIO ARAKAWA
- 2003

A review of the cumulus parameterization problem is presented with an emphasis on its conceptual aspects covering the history of the underlying ideas, major problems existing at present, and possible directions and approaches for future climate models. Since its introduction in the early 1960s, there have been decades of controversies in posing the cumulus… (More)

Preliminary tests of the multiscale modeling approach, also known as the cloud-resolving convective parameterization, or superparameterization, are performed using an idealized framework. In this approach, a two-dimensional cloud-system resolving model (CSRM) is embedded within each vertical column of a general circulation model (GCM) replacing conventional… (More)

- A. Arakawa
- 2011

As far as the representation of deep moist con-vection is concerned, only two kinds of model physics are used at present: highly parameterized as in the conventional general circulation models (GCMs) and explicitly simulated as in the cloud-resolving models (CRMs). Ideally, these two kinds of model physics should be unified so that a continuous transition… (More)

A new framework for modeling the atmosphere, which we call the quasi-3D (Q3D) multi-scale modeling framework (MMF), is developed with the objective of including cloud-scale three-dimensional effects in a GCM without necessarily using a global cloud-resolving model (CRM). It combines a GCM with a Q3D CRM that has the horizontal domain consisting of two… (More)

A three-dimensional anelastic model has been developed using the vorticity equation, in which the pressure gradient force is eliminated. The prognostic variables of the model dynamics are the horizontal components of vorticity at all heights and the vertical component of vorticity and the horizontally uniform part of the horizontal velocity at a selected… (More)

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Aims/Introduction: Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is often associated with pain, and thus a new treatment option is anticipated. We recently showed the efficacy of pregabalin in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 14-week trial in Japanese patients with painful DPN. In the present study, we evaluated the long-term efficacy and… (More)

The goal of this paper is to gain insight into the resolution dependence of model physics, the parameterization of moist convection in particular, which is required for accurately predicting large-scale features of the atmosphere. To achieve this goal, experiments using a two-dimensional nonhydrostatic model with different resolutions are conducted under… (More)

This article covers the history of atmospheric general circulation modeling from its prehistory through about 1985. The backgrounds, chief models, and influences of the major GCM modeling groups established in the 1960s (GFDL, UCLA, and NCAR) are discussed. The author solicits comments and criticism for a Web site and future book on this largely unexplored… (More)