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The integral constraints on quadratic quantities of physical importance , such as conservation of mean kinetic energy and mean square vorticity, will not be maintained in finite difference analogues of or the equation of motion for two-dimensional incompressible flow, unless the finite difference Jacobian expression for the advection term is restricted to a(More)
| C LOUDS AND CLIMATE: A PROBLEM THAT REFUSES TO DIE. Clouds of many varieties fill the global atmosphere (Fig. 1). They are composed of drops and crystals with scales on the order of microns to millimeters. They are associated with convection and turbulence on scales of meters to kilometers. They are organized within mesoscale and synoptic-scale dynamical(More)
Preliminary tests of the multiscale modeling approach, also known as the cloud-resolving convective parameterization, or superparameterization, are performed using an idealized framework. In this approach, a two-dimensional cloud-system resolving model (CSRM) is embedded within each vertical column of a general circulation model (GCM) replacing conventional(More)
A new framework for modeling the atmosphere, which we call the quasi-3D (Q3D) multi-scale modeling framework (MMF), is developed with the objective of including cloud-scale three-dimensional effects in a GCM without necessarily using a global cloud-resolving model (CRM). It combines a GCM with a Q3D CRM that has the horizontal domain consisting of two(More)
Two well-studied conditions of peripheral neuropathic pain are postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) and painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Several pregabalin trials for peripheral neuropathic pain have been conducted in the West, but limited data are available for Japan. As ethnicity may influence health risks, differences may be evident in safety data(More)
UNLABELLED Aims/Introduction:  Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is often associated with pain, and thus a new treatment option is anticipated. We recently showed the efficacy of pregabalin in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 14-week trial in Japanese patients with painful DPN. In the present study, we evaluated the long-term efficacy and(More)
The goal of this paper is to gain insight into the resolution dependence of model physics, the parameterization of moist convection in particular, which is required for accurately predicting large-scale features of the atmosphere. To achieve this goal, experiments using a two-dimensional nonhydrostatic model with different resolutions are conducted under(More)
BACKGROUND In new drug development in neuropathic pain (NeP), randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials (PCTs) with long treatment durations in a parallel-group design are recommended for confirmatory trials. OBJECTIVE This study was conducted to identify potential factors contributing to elevated placebo response in parallel-group PCTs for oral(More)