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The attachment of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) to host cells and the induction of attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions are prominent pathogenic features. EPEC infection also leads to host cell death and damage to the intestinal mucosa, which is partly dependent upon EspF, one of the effectors. In this study, we demonstrate that EspF is a(More)
CONTEXT Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis with neuronal differentiating activity, inhibits endothelial cell injury in vitro, thus suggesting the involvement of PEDF in atherosclerosis. Therefore, elucidating the relationship between serum levels of PEDF and coronary risk factors could provide a clue to(More)
Some pathogenic bacteria actually invade the cytoplasm of their target host cells. Invasive bacteria acquire the propulsive force to move by recruiting actin and inducing its polymerization. Here we show that Shigella movement within the cytoplasm was severely hindered by microtubules and that the bacteria destroyed surrounding microtubules by secreting(More)
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli delivers a subset of effectors into host cells via a type III secretion system, and this step is required for the progression of disease. Here, we show that the type III effectors, EspG and its homolog Orf3, trigger actin stress fiber formation and the destruction of the microtubule networks beneath adherent bacteria. Both(More)
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) delivers a subset of effectors into host cells via a type III secretion system. Here we show that the type III effector EspG and its homologue EspG2 alter epithelial paracellular permeability. When MDCK cells were infected with wild-type (WT) EPEC, RhoA was activated, and this event was dependent on the delivery of(More)
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) secretes many Esps (E. coli-secreted proteins) and effectors via the type III secretion (TTS) system. We previously identified a novel needle complex (NC) composed of a basal body and a needle structure containing an expandable EspA sheath-like structure as a central part of the EPEC TTS apparatus. To further(More)
BACKGROUND Bordetella pertussis is the primary etiologic agent of the disease pertussis. Universal immunization programs have contributed to a significant reduction in morbidity and mortality of pertussis; however, incidence of the disease, especially in adolescents and adults, has increased in several countries despite high vaccination coverage. During the(More)
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE The high incidence of bacterial translocation in newborns is thought to be caused, in part, by the immaturity of the intestinal mucosal barrier. Recently, intestinal mucus phospholipids (PL) have been reported to be important factors in the function of this mucosal barrier. The aim of this study was to quantify changes, with age, in the(More)
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) infects intestinal epithelial cells and perturbs the intestinal barrier that limits the paracellular movement of molecules. The disruption of the barrier is mediated by the effectors translocated into the host cells through the bacterial type III secretion system (TTSS). A previous report has described the importance(More)
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) belongs to a family of related bacterial pathogens, including enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 and other human and animal diarrheagenic pathogens that form attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions on host epithelial surfaces. Bacterial secreted Esp proteins and a type III secretion system are conserved(More)