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Ca-activated Cl currents are widely expressed in many cell types and play diverse and important physiological roles. The Xenopus oocyte is a good model system for studying the regulation of these currents. We previously showed that inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) injection into Xenopus oocytes rapidly elicits a noninactivating outward Cl current (ICl1-S)(More)
abstract Ca 2 ϩ-activated Cl Ϫ channels play important roles in a variety of physiological processes, including epi-thelial secretion, maintenance of smooth muscle tone, and repolarization of the cardiac action potential. It remains unclear, however, exactly how these channels are controlled by Ca 2 ϩ and voltage. Excised inside-out patches containing many(More)
Heterologous expression of a variety of membrane proteins in Xenopus oocytes sometimes results in the appearance of a hyperpolarization-activated inward current. The nature of this current remains incompletely understood. Some investigators have suggested that this current is a Cl current, whereas others have identified it as a nonselective cation current.(More)
Ca2+ and Na+ play important roles in neurons, such as in synaptic plasticity. Their concentrations in neurons change dynamically in response to synaptic inputs, but their kinetics have not been compared directly. Here, we show the mechanisms and dynamics of Ca2+ and Na+ transients by simultaneous monitoring in Purkinje cell dendrites in mouse cerebellar(More)
Changes in synaptic efficacy at the parallel fiber (PF)-Purkinje cell (PC) synapse are postulated to be a cellular basis for motor learning. Although long-term efficacy changes lasting more than an hour at this synapse, i.e., long-term potentiation and depression, have been extensively studied, relatively short lasting synaptic efficacy changes, namely(More)
Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels play important roles in a variety of physiological processes, including epithelial secretion, maintenance of smooth muscle tone, and repolarization of the cardiac action potential. It remains unclear, however, exactly how these channels are controlled by Ca(2+) and voltage. Excised inside-out patches containing many(More)
We investigated how Ca2+-sensitive transient outward current, Ito(Ca), is activated in rabbit ventricular myocytes in the presence of intracellular Na+ (Na+i) using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique at 36 degreesC. In cells dialysed with Na+-free solutions, the application of nicardipine (5 microM) to block L-type Ca2+ current (ICa) completely inhibited(More)
The transient outward currents (Ito) play an important role in action potential repolarization in cardiac myocytes. Two components of Ito have been identified as 4-AP-sensitive but Ca2+-insensitive Ito carried by K, and Ca2+-sensitive but 4-AP insensitive Ito carried by Cl- (I(Cl(Ca))). It is known that the amplitudes of Ito change depending on the(More)
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