Akinobu Suzuki

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Memory retrieval is not a passive phenomenon. Instead, it triggers a number of processes that either reinforce or alter stored information. Retrieval is thought to activate a second memory consolidation cascade (reconsolidation) that requires protein synthesis. Here, we show that the temporal dynamics of memory reconsolidation are dependent on the strength(More)
We report that, in the rat hippocampus, learning leads to a significant increase in extracellular lactate levels that derive from glycogen, an energy reserve selectively localized in astrocytes. Astrocytic glycogen breakdown and lactate release are essential for long-term but not short-term memory formation, and for the maintenance of long-term potentiation(More)
Unraveling the mechanisms by which the molecular manipulation of genes of interest enhances cognitive function is important to establish genetic therapies for cognitive disorders. Although CREB is thought to positively regulate formation of long-term memory (LTM), gain-of-function effects of CREB remain poorly understood, especially at the behavioral level.(More)
Following initial encoding, memories undergo a prolonged period of reorganization. While such reorganization may occur in many different memory systems, its purpose is not clear. Previously, we have shown that recall of recent contextual fear memories engages the dorsal hippocampus (dHPC). In contrast, recall of remote contextual fear memories engages a(More)
During fear conditioning, animals learn an association between a previously neutral or conditioned stimulus (CS) and an aversive or unconditioned stimulus (US). Subsequent reexposure to the CS alone triggers two competing processes. Brief reexposure to the CS initiates reconsolidation processes that serve to stabilize or maintain the original CS-US memory.(More)
Circulating macrophages are recruited to degenerating nerves in response to nerve injury to remove myelin and axonal debris, a process that is crucial for successful nerve regeneration. In this study, we demonstrate that pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP)-III is a macrophage chemoattractant that is induced in and released from injured nerves. In vitro(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to characterize the imaging spectrum of benign notochordal cell tumors (BNCTs) and chondromas and to determine if this helped in differentiating BNCTs from chordomas. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty-eight patients pathologically diagnosed with chordomas were reviewed and ultimately diagnosed to have five BNCTs and 33(More)
Previous studies have shown that inhibiting protein synthesis shortly after reactivation impairs the subsequent expression of a previously consolidated fear memory. This has suggested that reactivation returns a memory to a labile state and that protein synthesis is required for the subsequent restabilization of memory. While the molecular mechanisms(More)
To produce an osteogenic and bacteriocidal biomaterial for the treatment of infected nonunions or bone defects, a synthetic degradable block copolymer of poly-D,L-lactic acid segments with randomly inserted p-dioxanone and polyethylene glycol (PLA-DX-PEG) segments was mixed with recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) and antibiotics at high concentration. We(More)
Store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) or calcium release-activated calcium current (I(CRAC)) is a critical pathway to replenish intracellular calcium stores, and plays indispensable roles in cellular functions such as antigen-induced T lymphocyte activation. Despite the importance of I(CRAC) in cellular functions, lack of potent and specific inhibitor has(More)