Akinobu Okada

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BACKGROUND Valproic acid (VPA) causes the failure of neural tube closure in newborn mice. However, the molecular mechanism of its teratogenesis is unknown. This study was conducted to investigate the genomewide effects of VPA disruption of normal neural tube development in mice. METHODS Microarray analysis was performed on the head part of NMRI mouse(More)
Many chemicals released into the environment potentially disrupt the endocrine system in wildlife and humans. Some of these chemicals exhibit estrogenic activity by binding to the estrogen receptors. The developing organism is particularly sensitive to estrogenic chemicals during the critical period in which the induction of long-term changes and persistent(More)
BACKGROUND Valproic acid (VPA) is widely used to treat epilepsy and bipolar disorder and is also a potent teratogen, but its teratogenic mechanisms are unknown. We have attempted to describe a fundamental role of the Polycomb group (Pc-G) in VPA-induced transformations of the axial skeleton. METHODS Pregnant NMRI mice were given a single subcutaneous(More)
Ontogenetic expression of progesterone receptor (PR) and effect of estrogens on PR expression in the fetal female rat reproductive tract were investigated. To evaluate ontogenetic PR expression, female reproductive tract from untreated fetuses was examined on gestational days (GD) 15.5, 17.5, 19.5 and 21.5. To evaluate estrogen effects, pregnant rats were(More)
BACKGROUND The antiepileptic drug valproic acid (VPA) is well known to cause neural tube and skeletal defects in both humans and animals. The amidic VPA analogues valpromide (VPD) and valnoctamide (VCD) have much lower teratogenicity than VPA inducing exencephaly in mice. The objective of this study was to investigate the teratogenic effects of VPA, VPD,(More)
Expression of transcription factors binding to the activating protein-1 (AP-1) site is induced by estrogens in association with epithelial proliferation in the uterus, but, in the oviduct, the relationship between cell proliferation and differentiation and AP-1 transcription factors is not well understood. In the developing rat oviduct, we found that(More)
BACKGROUND Although valproic acid (VPA) is used extensively for treating various kinds of epilepsy, it causes hepatotoxicity and teratogenicity. In an attempt to develop a more potent and safer second generation to VPA drug, the amide derivatives of the tetramethylcyclopropyl VPA analogue, 2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropanecarboxamide (TMCD), N-methyl-TMCD(More)
Phenytoin (DPH) is known to affect bone formation. However, the mechanism of this effect has not been well understood. In this study, we evaluated the effects of DPH on cartilage formation in a model system using ATDC5 cells, a clonal murine chondrogenic cell line. Alcian blue staining for cartilage nodules and real-time reverse-transcription polymerase(More)
In order to evaluate the physiological roles of the testicular endothelin (Edn) signaling via Edn receptor subtype-A (Ednra) in mammals, the localization of Ednra was investigated by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry in the testis of rats, dogs, and monkeys. For in situ hybridization, a rat Ednra RNA probe which is highly homologous to the(More)
BACKGROUND Although valproic acid (VPA) is used extensively for treating various kinds of epilepsies, it is well known that it causes neural tube and skeletal defects in both humans and animals. The amide and urea derivatives of the tetramethylcylcopropyl VPA analogue, N-methoxy-2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropanecarboxamide (N-methoxy-TMCD) and(More)