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Effects of L-glutamate (Glu), the neurotransmitter released by photoreceptors, on isolated cat bipolar cells were examined. Membrane currents of bipolar cells were recorded by the patch-clamp technique in a conventional whole-cell recording configuration using pipettes containing 1 mM cGMP, which has been known to activate a cationic current sensitive to(More)
Feedback from horizontal cells (HCs) to cone photoreceptors plays a key role in the center-surround-receptive field organization of retinal neurons. Recordings from cone photoreceptors in newt retinal slices were obtained by the whole-cell patch-clamp technique, using a superfusate containing a GABA antagonist (100 microM picrotoxin). Surround illumination(More)
1. Intracellular recordings were made from various types of cells in the isolated goldfish retina, and Procion Yellow was injected from the recording pipette in order to identify histologically the structure recorded. The dye diffused and stained the cell body and processes down to the fine branches.2. S-potentials were identified as coming from the(More)
1. Intracellular recordings were made from bipolar and amacrine cells in the isolated goldfish retina. Cells were identified mainly from their response patterns to a spot and an annulus in reference to the knowledge obtained from the previous work of intracellular Procion Yellow injection. Using white light and monochromatic lights receptive field(More)
Membrane properties of solitary bipolar cells, mechanically dissociated from the enzyme-treated goldfish retina, were studied under current- and voltage-clamp conditions with 'giga-seal' suction pipettes (pipette solution 138 mM-K). The resting potential of solitary bipolar cells was about -30 mV. They responded to depolarizing current pulses with sustained(More)
Bipolar, amacrine, and ganglion cells of carp retina, stained intracellularly with Procion yellow, can be divided into types a and b, according to the destination of terminals and dendritic trees in the inner plexiform layer (sublamina a and b, respectively). Type a cells showed hyperpolarizing, or off, responses and type b cells depolarizing, or on,(More)
1. Mechanical dissociation of the enzyme-treated goldfish retina yielded somata and axon terminals of horizontal cells. The membrane properties of these solitary axon terminals were investigated using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. 2. Axon terminals had a large input resistance, comparable to the seal resistance (approximately 30 G omega). Most axon(More)
In order to interpret the formation of receptive field surrounds in retinal neurons, a proton-mediated mechanism was proposed to mediate feedback from horizontal cells (HCs) to cone photoreceptors. To verify the idea that depolarized HCs release protons, we measured, by a fluorescence ratiometric technique, the pH of the immediate external surface (pHs) of(More)
L-Glutamate is a leading candidate for the vertebrate photoreceptor transmitter. In addition to the signal transmission to second-order neurons, photoreceptors communicate with each other not only electrically but also chemically. In the present study, by using solitary turtle photoreceptors, we examined the possibility that L-glutamate mediates(More)
Bipolar cells (BCs) have antagonistic center-surround receptive field. Surround illumination evokes depolarization in the OFF-type cone BC, and hyperpolarization in the rod BC and the ON-type cone BC. Surround illumination reduces gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) release from horizontal cells. If GABA hyperpolarize BCs, the polarity of the GABA-induced effect(More)