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The basal ganglia have been implicated in motor planning and motor learning. In the study reported here, we directly tested for response plasticity in striatal neurons of macaque monkeys undergoing Pavlovian conditioning. To focus the study, we recorded from the tonically active neurons (TANs) of the striatum, which are known to respond to conditioned(More)
The aim of this report was to investigate the neural processes of movement initiation and control in which the basal ganglia play an essential role. Single-neuron activity was recorded in the putamen of monkeys performing learned arm movements initiated in three different modes: sensorially guided, internally-timed self-initiated and memory guided. There(More)
Physical exercise may enhance the recovery of impaired memory function in stroke rats. However the appropriate conditions of exercise and the mechanisms underlying these beneficial effects are not yet known. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect exercise intensity on memory function after cerebral infarction in rats. The animals(More)
The motor unit discharges in human hand muscles were recorded during voluntary isometric contraction. Bipolar wire electrodes were inserted in the right adductor pollicis muscle (AP) and first dorsal interosseous muscle (FDI) for the recordings. Motor unit activities from these muscles were investigated when subjects exerted voluntary force to each target(More)
It is well known that early rehabilitation is effective for functional recovery after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH); however, the mechanisms have not been well described. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effects of early rehabilitative therapy (treadmill running) on recovery of motor function and alteration of brain histology after ICH. Male(More)
Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is one of the most effective treatments for osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Dislocation of the femoral head from the acetabular socket is a major problem of THA. To prevent dislocation, it is important to know the range of motion (ROM) after THA. Although various studies on the ROM were carried out, there exist only a(More)
We investigated the effects of motor skills training on several types of motor function and synaptic plasticity following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in rats. Male Wistar rats were injected with collagenase into the left striatum to induce ICH, and they were randomly assigned to the ICH or sham groups. Each group was divided into the motor skills(More)
Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) involves the restraint of an intact limb to force the dominant use of an affected limb, in an attempt to enhance use-dependent plasticity and reduce dysfunction. To investigate whether forced disuse of an intact forelimb with CIMT causes a loss of limb function and degenerative damage in the brain, a staircase test(More)
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) can cause direct brain injury at the insult site and indirect damage in remote brain areas. Although a protective effect of melatonin (ML) has been reported for ICH, its detailed mechanisms and effects on remote brain injury remain unclear. To clarify the mechanism of indirect neuroprotection after ICH, we first investigated(More)