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The basal ganglia have been implicated in motor planning and motor learning. In the study reported here, we directly tested for response plasticity in striatal neurons of macaque monkeys undergoing Pavlovian conditioning. To focus the study, we recorded from the tonically active neurons (TANs) of the striatum, which are known to respond to conditioned(More)
Birth asphyxia can cause moderate to severe brain injury. It is unclear to what degree apoptotic or necrotic mechanisms of cell death account for damage after neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI). In a 7-d-old rat HI model, we determined the contributions of apoptosis and necrosis to neuronal injury in adjacent Nissl-stained, hematoxylin and eosin-stained, and(More)
Hypoxic ischemia is a common cause of damage to the fetal and neonatal brain. Although systemic and cerebrovascular physiologic factors play an important role in the initial phases of hypoxic-ischemic injuries, the intrinsic vulnerability of specific cell types and systems in the developing brain may be more important in determining the final pattern of(More)
The aim of this report was to investigate the neural processes of movement initiation and control in which the basal ganglia play an essential role. Single-neuron activity was recorded in the putamen of monkeys performing learned arm movements initiated in three different modes: sensorially guided, internally-timed self-initiated and memory guided. There(More)
Physical exercise may enhance the recovery of impaired memory function in stroke rats. However the appropriate conditions of exercise and the mechanisms underlying these beneficial effects are not yet known. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect exercise intensity on memory function after cerebral infarction in rats. The animals(More)
The motor unit discharges in human hand muscles were recorded during voluntary isometric contraction. Bipolar wire electrodes were inserted in the right adductor pollicis muscle (AP) and first dorsal interosseous muscle (FDI) for the recordings. Motor unit activities from these muscles were investigated when subjects exerted voluntary force to each target(More)
We examined in 5-day-old rats the effects of either anoxia or 8% hypoxia on extracellular monoamines such as dopamine (DA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA), norepinephrine (NE), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), and 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA) using in vivo microdialysis and subsequent HPLC. After stabilization 64(More)
OBJECTIVE We investigated the effects of voluntary contraction of agonist and antagonist muscles on motor evoked potentials (MEP) and on myoelectric activities in the target (agonist) muscle following transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). METHODS The left extensor carpi radialis (ECR) and flexor carpi radialis (FCR) muscles were studied in 16 healthy(More)
It is well known that early rehabilitation is effective for functional recovery after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH); however, the mechanisms have not been well described. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effects of early rehabilitative therapy (treadmill running) on recovery of motor function and alteration of brain histology after ICH. Male(More)