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The basal ganglia have been implicated in motor planning and motor learning. In the study reported here, we directly tested for response plasticity in striatal neurons of macaque monkeys undergoing Pavlovian conditioning. To focus the study, we recorded from the tonically active neurons (TANs) of the striatum, which are known to respond to conditioned(More)
It has been proposed that hematopoietic and endothelial cells are derived from a common cell, the hemangioblast. In this study, we demonstrate that a subset of CD34(+) cells have the capacity to differentiate into endothelial cells in vitro in the presence of basic fibroblast growth factor, insulin-like growth factor-1, and vascular endothelial growth(More)
Birth asphyxia can cause moderate to severe brain injury. It is unclear to what degree apoptotic or necrotic mechanisms of cell death account for damage after neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI). In a 7-d-old rat HI model, we determined the contributions of apoptosis and necrosis to neuronal injury in adjacent Nissl-stained, hematoxylin and eosin-stained, and(More)
Hypoxic ischemia is a common cause of damage to the fetal and neonatal brain. Although systemic and cerebrovascular physiologic factors play an important role in the initial phases of hypoxic-ischemic injuries, the intrinsic vulnerability of specific cell types and systems in the developing brain may be more important in determining the final pattern of(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SNi). As neurotrophic factors support the survival and enhance the function of dopaminergic neurons, gene therapy using neurotrophic factors has become the center of interest. Thus, we focused on hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)(More)
It has recently been reported that there exists a new 'RING-finger' protein family among the zinc-finger (Zf) proteins. Previously, we had isolated the mouse Mel-18 cDNA (mMel-18) encoding the nuclear RING-finger protein that exhibits an ability to bind to a nonspecific DNA column. Here, we have isolated and characterized the human Mel-18 cDNA (hMel-18)(More)
Galectin-3, a multifunctional beta-galactoside-binding lectin, is known to participate in development, oncogenesis, cell-to-cell attachment, and inflammation. We studied to determine whether galectin-3 is associated with cell injury and regeneration in two types of acute renal failure (ARF), namely ischemic and toxic ARF. In ischemia/reperfusion renal(More)
The mammalian mel-18/bmi-1 gene products share an amino acid sequence and a secondary structure, including a RING-finger motif, with the Drosophila Polycomb group (PcG) gene products Psc and Su(z)2, implying that they represent a gene family with related functions. As Drosophila PcG gene products are thought to function as transcriptional repressors by(More)
In search of substances useful for the treatment of atherosclerotic vascular diseases, we studied the effects of 15-deoxy-Delta(12, 14)-prostaglandin J(2) (15d-PGJ(2)), a natural ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, on the proliferation and differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). 15d-PGJ(2) but not WY14643, an(More)
BACKGROUND Platelet transfusion refractoriness remains problematic in the management of patients who have undergone hematopoietic progenitor cell transplantation. Bone marrow transplantation itself is reported to be a relevant factor hampering efficient platelet transfusions. However, a prospective analysis assessing factors affecting platelet transfusion(More)