Akil Hammami

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Inflammation is known to be necessary for promoting, sustaining, and tuning CD8+ T cell responses. Following experimental Leishmania donovani infection, the inflammatory response is mainly induced by the transcription factor IRF-5. IRF-5 is responsible for the activation of several genes encoding key pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6 and TNF. Here,(More)
Organisms typically react to foreign pathogens by initiating an inflammatory response. However, in order to limit inflammatory tissue injury, it is essential for the organism to maintain the balance between inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses. Dysregulation of this process can result in the strong inhibition of protective pro-inflammatory(More)
Leishmania donovani is known to induce myelopoiesis and to dramatically increase extramedullary myelopoiesis. This results in splenomegaly, which is then accompanied by disruption of the splenic microarchitecture, a chronic inflammatory environment, and immunosuppression. Chronically inflamed tissues are typically hypoxic. The role of hypoxia on myeloid(More)
Human and equine rabies immunoglobulins are currently available for passive immunization against rabies. However, these are hampered by the limited supply and some drawbacks. Advances in antibody engineering have led to overcome issues of clinical applications and to improve the protective efficacy. In the present study, we report the generation of a(More)
Cells of the immune system are derived from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) residing in the bone marrow. HSCs become activated in response to stress, such as acute infections, which adapt the bone marrow output to the needs of the immune response. However, the impact of infection-adapted HSC activation and differentiation on the persistence of chronic(More)
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