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The expression of RNA polymerase (RNAP) sigma factor genes and proteins was characterized as a first step toward understanding their functions in a unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, which can perform photosynthesis. All nine sigma factors (group 1, SigA; group 2, SigB to SigE; and group 3, SigF to SigI) and each RNAP core subunit (RpoA,(More)
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is the rate-limiting enzyme of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism, ultimately leading to production of the excitotoxin quinolinic acid (QUIN) by monocytic cells. In the Tg2576 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease, systemic inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide leads to an increase in IDO expression and QUIN(More)
The docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) biosynthesis gene cluster (pDHA3) from the DHA-producing Moritella marina strain MP-1 includes the genes pfaA, pfaB, pfaC, and pfaD, which are similar to the genes of polyketide biosynthesis. When this cluster was co-expressed in Escherichia coli with M. marina MP-1 pfaE, which encodes phosphopantetheinyl transferase, DHA was(More)
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a representative endocrine disruptor that may have adverse effects on human health. Since the development of oral tolerance during infancy may play an important role in the prevention of food allergies, we examined whether transmaternal exposure to BPA influences the development of oral tolerance. To measure antigen-specific responses,(More)
Yeast mitochondria have generally been believed not to undergo the permeability transition (PT) by the accumulation of Ca(2+) within the mitochondrial matrix, unlike mammalian mitochondria. However, the reason why the yeast PT is not induced by Ca(2+) has remained obscure. In this study, we examined in detail the effects of Ca(2+) on yeast mitochondria(More)
Erythromycin (EM) has attracted attention because of its anti-inflammatory effect. Because dendritic cells (DCs) are the most potent APCs involved in numerous pathologic processes including innate immunity, we examined effects of EM on the activation of human DCs by pathogen-derived stimuli. Monocyte-derived DCs were pretreated with EM and subsequently(More)
Enhancement of the low-affinity Fc epsilon receptor (CD23) expression by cytochalasin was analyzed on the human monocytelike cell line, U937. The CD23 expression on the U937 cells was enhanced at 24 hr after culture with cytochalasin B, D, or E, especially cytochalasin E having the most remarkable effect on it at the low concentration. This enhanced(More)
The transcription factor Nrf2 regulates the expression of antioxidant genes. Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes and its complications. However, little is known about the protective role of Nrf2 in diabetes. To gain insight into the protective role of Nrf2 in diabetes we treated Nrf2 knockout (Nrf2 KO) mice(More)
Although 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) has been shown to influence immune responses, the effects of low-dose TCDD on the development of autoimmunity are unclear. In this study, using NFS/sld mice as a model for human Sjögren's syndrome, in which the lesions are induced by the thymectomy on day 3 after birth, the autoimmune lesions in the(More)
Contact dermatitis in humans and contact hypersensitivity (CHS) in animal models are delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions mediated by hapten-specific T cells. Recently, it has become clear that both CD4(+) Th1 and CD8(+) type 1 cytotoxic T (Tc1) cells can act as effectors in CHS reactions. T-bet has been demonstrated to play an important role in Th1 and(More)