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Efficient isolation of specific, intact, living neurons from the adult brain is problematic due to the complex nature of the extracellular matrix consolidating the neuronal network. Here, we present significant improvements to the protocol for isolation of pure populations of neurons from mature postnatal mouse brain using fluorescence activated cell(More)
The pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis is capable of learning conditioned taste aversion (CTA) and then consolidating that learning into long-term memory (LTM) that persists for at least 1 month. LTM requires de novo protein synthesis and altered gene activity. Changes in gene activity in Lymnaea that are correlated with, much less causative, memory formation(More)
BACKGROUND The transcriptome of the cerebral cortex is remarkably homogeneous, with variations being stronger between individuals than between areas. It is thought that due to the presence of many distinct cell types, differences within one cell population will be averaged with the noise from others. Studies of sorted cells expressing the same transgene(More)
Some specific transcription factors are essential for memory consolidation across species. However, it is still unclear whether only the activation of constitutively expressed forms of these conserved transcription factors is involved in memory consolidation or their de novo synthesis also occurs after learning. This question has remained unanswered partly(More)
The pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis acquires conditioned taste aversion (CTA) and maintains its memory for more than a month. Snails in our laboratory were cultured at 20 degrees C on a 12:12 light-dark cycle (light from 7 am to 7 pm). To examine the hours during which snails acquire CTA effectively, we trained some snails in the morning and others in the(More)
The molecular mechanisms by which capillary supply is maintained with advancing age remain to be elucidated. To help clarify these mechanisms, we investigated the gene expression levels of angiogenesis-related factors in young (2.5-month-old), adult (6-month-old), and old (22-month-old) mice. To assess the capillary supply, the capillary endothelium in(More)
Interaction between the activator type of cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB1) and the repressor type (CREB2) results in determining the emergence of long-lasting synaptic enhancement involved in memory consolidation. However, we still do not know whether the constitutively expressed forms of CREB are enough or the newly synthesized forms are(More)
We investigated the effect of immobilization of hindlimb in a shortened position on proteins in the mouse soleus muscle and determined the molecular properties of a protein that had changed specifically in the atrophied muscle. A protein of 67.5 kDa was increased significantly (P<0.001) by 1.9-fold in the atrophied muscle compared to the control muscle as(More)
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