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Gingival epithelial cells may form the first barriers of defense against oral bacteria in periodontal tissues. We stimulated human gingival epithelial cells (keratinocytes) in primary culture, the oral epithelial cell line KB and the colonic epithelial cell line SW620 with various bacterial cell-surface components in the presence or absence of soluble CD14(More)
Peptidoglycans (PGNs) are ubiquitous constituents of bacterial cell walls and exhibit various immunobiological activities. Two types of minimum essential PGN structures for immunobiological activities were chemically synthesized and designated as muramyldipeptide; N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine (MDP) and gamma-D-glutamyl-meso-diaminopimelic acid(More)
Bacterial peptidoglycan (PGN) has been reported to be sensed by cell-surface Toll-like receptor (TLR)2. On the other hand, intracellular NOD-like receptors recognize PGN partial structures: NOD1 and NOD2 recognize the peptide moiety containing diaminopimelic acid, and the muramyldipeptide (MDP) moiety, respectively. In this study, we examined in human(More)
IL-18, a potent IFN-gamma-inducing cytokine, is expressed by various nonimmune cells as well as macrophages, suggesting that it has important physiological and immunological roles. The present study focused on the mechanism of active IL-18 induction from human oral epithelial cells. The epithelial cells and the cell lines constitutively express IL-18 mRNA(More)
An earlier study reported that human gingival epithelial cells in primary culture and oral epithelial cell lines KB and HSC-2 cells were devoid of membrane CD14 (mCD14) and did not show enhanced production of interleukin (IL)-8 or granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) upon stimulation with bacterial cell-surface components such as(More)
Two types of synthetic peptidoglycan fragments, diaminopimelic acid (DAP)-containing desmuramylpeptides (DMP) and muramyldipeptide (MDP), induced secretion of interleukin (IL)-8 in a dose-dependent manner in human monocytic THP-1 cells, although high concentrations of compounds are required as compared with chemically synthesized Toll-like receptor (TLR)(More)
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common lethal inherited disorder caused by mutation in the gene encoding CF transmembrane regulator (CFTR). The clinical course of CF is characterized by recurrent pulmonary infections and chronic inflammation. Here, we show that toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2) expression and response were strongly enhanced in the human CF(More)
Proteinase 3 (PR3), a 29-kDa serine proteinase secreted from activated neutrophils, also exists in a membrane-bound form, and is suggested to actively contribute to inflammatory processes. The present study focused on the mechanism by which PR3 activates human oral epithelial cells. PR3 activated the epithelial cells in culture to produce IL-8 and monocyte(More)
Epithelial cells may form the first barrier of defense against bacteria in human tissues. We recently revealed that oral epithelial cells generated anti-bacterial factors, such as peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) and beta-defensin 2, but not proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-8 (IL-8), upon stimulation with bacterial cell-surface(More)