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NC/Nga mice are known to develop scratching dermatitis akin to atopic dermatitis, under conventional (Conv), but not under the specific-pathogen-free (SPF) condition. In this study, we examined the effects of mechanical-scratching on the spontaneous scratching counts (sign of itching), in relation to the cutaneous prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) levels in NC/Nga or(More)
Memory processing in nonhuman animals has been typically tested in situations where the animals are repeatedly trained to retrieve their memory trace, such as delayed matching to sample, serial probe recognition, etc. In contrast, how they utilize incidentally formed memory traces is not well investigated except in rodents. We examined whether domestic dogs(More)
TS-022, {4-[(1R, 2S, 3R, 5R)-5-Chloro-2-((S)-3-cyclohexyl-3-hydroxyprop-1-ynyl)-3-hydroxycyclopentyl] butylthio} acetic acid monohydrate, inhibits ADP-induced platelet aggregation, an effect significantly antagonized, as in the case of prostaglandin D(2) by the prostanoid DP(1) receptor antagonist (BW A868C). TS-022 is a prostanoid DP(1) receptor agonist,(More)
Bronchial asthma is characterized by massive infiltration of eosinophils and airway hyperreactivity (AHR), which are caused by overproduction of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) by allergen-specific T cells. We recently demonstrated a critical contribution of OX40 ligand (OX40L) to the development of Th2-mediated experimental leishmaniasis. In this(More)
When wild-type BALB/c mice were transferred with OVA-specific Th2 cells followed by OVA inhalation, a severe eosinophilia, mucus hypersecretion and airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) was induced in parallel with a marked elevation of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). However, neither eosinophilia, AHR nor mucus(More)
Pruritus is an important symptom in atopic dermatitis (AD), but the major pruritogen has not been identified. NC/Nga mice, spontaneously develop an eczematous AD-like skin lesion when kept under conventional conditions, but not under specific pathogen-free (SPF) conditions, have been thought to be an animal model for AD. In this study, to determine whether(More)
Ag-specific Th1 and Th2 cells have been demonstrated to play a critical role in the induction of allergic diseases. Here we have investigated the precise mechanisms of Th1-induced airway inflammation. Airway inflammation was induced in BALB/c mice by transfer of freshly induced OVA-specific Th1 or Th2 cells followed by OVA inhalation. In this model, both(More)
To search for the pruritogen of atopic dermatitis, a characteristic symptom in atopic dermatitis patients, we examined interleukin-31 (IL-31) mRNA expression in NC/Nga mice as an animal model of atopic dermatitis. The expression of IL-31 mRNA in the skin of NC/Nga mice with scratching behavior was significantly higher than that in NC/Nga mice without(More)
We have identified a novel series of ring-fused pyrazole derivatives as lymphocyte-specific kinase (Lck) inhibitors. The most potent analogs exhibited good enzyme inhibitory activity (IC(50)s <1nM) as well as excellent cellular activity against mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) (IC(50)s <1nM).