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Rice (Oryza sativa) allelic sugary1 (sug1) mutants defective in isoamylase 1 (ISA1) accumulate varying levels of starch and phytoglycogen in their endosperm, and the activity of a pullulanase-type of a debranching enzyme (PUL) was found to correlate closely with the severity of the sug1 phenotype. Thus, three PUL-deficient mutants were generated to(More)
We have established methods for site-directed mutagenesis via transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) in the endogenous rice (Oryza sativa) waxy gene and demonstrated stable inheritance of TALEN-induced somatic mutations to the progeny. To analyze the role of classical nonhomologous end joining (cNHEJ) and alternative nonhomologous end(More)
Altered patterns of DNA methylation associated with Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection of gastric epithelial cells are thought to contribute to gastric cancer risk. However, it is unclear whether this increased risk reflects an infection-associated inflammatory response or the infection itself. In this study, we sought to clarify mechanisms in a gerbil(More)
Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive form of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, with a mean survival of only 3-5 years and suboptimal therapeutic options. MCL is characterized by a balanced translocation t(11;14)(q13;q32), resulting in overexpression of cyclin D1, a G(1) cyclin regulated by the PI3K/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling(More)
Aberrant DNA methylation is associated with many types of human cancers. To identify genes silenced in human colorectal cancers, we performed a microarray analysis for genes whose expression was induced by treatment of HCT116 human colon cancer cells with a demethylating agent, 5-aza-2'-deoxycitidine (5-aza-dC). Seven known genes were identified as being(More)
Suppression of aberrant DNA methylation is a novel approach to cancer prevention, but, so far, the efficacy of the strategy has not been evaluated in cancers associated with chronic inflammation. Gastric cancers induced by Helicobacter pylori infection are known to involve aberrant DNA methylation and associated with severe chronic inflammation in their(More)
The role of ERK1/2 in the IL-1-induced growth inhibition was investigated using human melanoma A375-6 cells. A selective inhibitor of ERK1/2 pathway, PD98059 and a selective inhibitor of p38MAPK, SB203580 each alone significantly reversed the IL-1-induced growth inhibition of A375-6 cells. Co-treatment with PD98059 and SB203580 completely reversed the(More)
Interleukin-1β (Il1b) is considered to be involved in Helicobacter pylori (HP)-induced human gastric carcinogenesis, while the role of its polymorphisms in gastric cancer susceptibility remains controversial. Here, we aimed to clarify the role of HP infection-induced IL1B in gastric inflammation and carcinogenesis using Il1b(-/-) (Il1b-null) mice. In(More)
Gastric cancer (GC) is highly influenced by aberrant methylation, and accumulation of aberrant methylation in gastric mucosae produces an epigenetic field for cancerization. Nevertheless, the individual driver genes involved in such field cancerization are still unclear. Here, we aimed to demonstrate that FAT4, a novel tumor suppressor identified by exome(More)